82 The retractable undercarriage has a tricycle arrangement with a single steerable nose-wheel and two main undercarriages. The hydraulic brakes have an automatic anti-skid system. The position and shape of the inlets is designed to give the required airflow to the jet engine during manoeuvres involving high angles of attack. 20 The mid-mounted wings are of cropped-delta configuration. Near the wing root are the lerx, which generate a vortex that provides extra lift to the wing at high angles of attack encountered during combat manoeuvres. A conventional tri-plane empennage arrangement is incorporated, with all-moving stabilators, single vertical stabiliser, rudder, and twin ventral fins.
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75 In December 2015, it was announced that the 16th Block ii aircraft had been handed over resulting in standing up of the 4th squadron. 76 Usman Shabbir of the pakistan Military consortium has said that Block 3 aircraft might include aesa radar, hmd, avionics improvements, and perhaps some reworking of the airframe. 77 Local media has indicated that a 2-seat version will also be part of Block iii package. 78 Unconfirmed reports says that Block iii will also have better flight management system/software. 79 On, jane's Defence weekly confirmed this that Block 3 will have an aesa radar and will also include a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and possibly an internal infrared search and tracking (irst) system. 80 Selex es next-generation cockpit get includes a new mission computer, an enhanced head-up display and contemporary multi-function displays, plus the capability for the pilot to instead use a single, large-area display. Selex is positioning the cockpit as a possible upgrade of jf-17 Block iii. 81 Airframe and cockpit edit Block 1 hud new view The airframe is of semi-monocoque structure constructed primarily of aluminium alloys. High strength steel and titanium alloys are partially adopted in some critical areas. The airframe is designed for a service life of 4,000 flight hours or 25 years, the first overhaul being due at 1,200 flight hours. 20 Block 2 jf-17s incorporate greater use of composite materials in the airframe to reduce weight.
69 70 France wanted the paf to purchase several Mirage 2000-9 fighters from the United Arab Emirates Air Force, which would overlap with the upgraded jf-17., the paf's Chief of Air Staff, air Chief Marshal rao qamar Suleman, said these reports were false. He said, "I have had discussions with French government officials who have assured me that this is not the position of their government". Suleman also speculated that "someone was trying to cause mischief—to put pressure on France not to supply the avionics we paper want". 72 jf-17 Thunder with the 26,660 ft high Nanga parbat in the background. On 18 December 2013, production of Block 2 jf-17s began at pac's Kamra facility. 73 These aircraft have air-to-air refuelling capability, improved avionics, enhanced load carrying capacity, data link, and electronic warfare capabilities. 74 Block 2 construction activity is planned to run until 2016, after which the manufacturing of further developed Block 3 aircraft is planned.
60 farnborough Airshow, the reviews jf-17 was displayed internationally for the first time; aerial displays at the show were intended but were cancelled due to a late attendance decision as well as license and insurance costs. 62 According to a rosoboronexport official at the airshow China 2010, held on 1621 november 2005 in Zhuhai, china, russia and China had signed a contract worth 238 million for 100 rd-93 engines with options for another 400 engines developed for the fc-1. 63 According to media reports, pakistan plans to increase production of jf-17s by 25 in 2016 64 Further development edit pakistan negotiated with British and Italian defence firms regarding avionics and radars for the jf-17 development. Radar options include the Italian Galileo avionica's Grifo S7, 65 the French Thomson-csf's RC400 (a variant of the rdy-2 66 and the British company selex galileo's Vixen 500E active electronically scanned array (aesa) radar. 19 In 2010, the paf had reportedly selected ate aerospace Group to integrate French-built avionics and weapons systems over rival bids from Astrac, finmeccanica and a thales - sagem joint venture. Fifty jf-17s were to be upgraded and an optional fifty from 2013 onwards, at a cost of up to us1.36 billion. The rc-400 radar, mica aams, and several air-to-surface weapons are believed to be in the contract. The paf also held talks with south Africa for the supply of Denel A-darter aams. 67 68 In April 2010, after eighteen months of negotiations, the deal was reportedly suspended; reports cited French concerns about pakistan's financial situation, the protection of sensitive french technology, and lobbying by the Indian government, which operates many French-built aircraft.
53 In 2005, pac began manufacturing jf-17 components; production of sub-assemblies commenced on 54 55 The paf was to receive a further six pre-production aircraft in 2005, for a total of 8 out of an initial production run of 16 aircraft. Initial operating capability was to be achieved by the end of 2008. 56 Final assembly of the jf-17 in pakistan began on ; pac expected to complete production of four to six aircraft that year. They planned to produce twelve aircraft in 2010 and fifteen to sixteen aircraft per year from 2011; this could increase to twenty-five aircraft per year. 57 On 29 December 2015, pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) announced the rollout of 16th jf-17 Thunder fighter manufactured in the calendar year 2015, taking total number of manufactured aircraft to more than. Later, a paf spokesperson said that in light of the interest shown by various countries, it has been decided that production capacity of jf-17 Thunder at pac kamra will be expanded. 5 Russia signed an agreement in August 2007 for re-export of 150 rd-93 engines from China to pakistan for the jf-17. 58 In 2008, the paf was reportedly not fully satisfied with the rd-93 engine and that it would only power the first 50 aircraft; it was alleged that arrangements for a new engine, reportedly the Snecma M53-P2, may have been made. 59 mikhail Pogosyan, head of the mig and sukhoi design bureaus, recommended the russian defence export agency rosoboronexport block rd-92 engine sales to China to prevent export competition from the jf-17 against the mig-29.
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According to lockheed Martin, the dsi design prevents most of the boundary layer air from entering the engine at speeds up to two times the speed of sound, reduces weight nuwara by removing the need for complex mechanical intake mechanisms, 45 and is stealthier than. 41 In 1999, developmental work on the dsi with the aim of improving aircraft performance commenced. The jf-17 design was professional finalised in 2001. 46 Multiple models underwent wind tunnel tests; it was found that the dsi reduced weight, cost, and complexity while improving performance. 45 For the avionics and weapons qualification phase of the flight testing, pt-04 was fitted with a fourth-generation avionics suite that incorporates sensor fusion, an electronic warfare suite, enhanced man-machine interface, digital Electronic Engine control (deec) for the rd-93 turbofan engine, fbw flight controls, day/night. 47 The sixth prototype, pt-06, made its maiden flight on 10 September 2006.
48 Following a competition in 2008, martin-baker was selected over a chinese firm for the supply of fifty pk16le ejection seats. 49 Production edit jf-17 at the le bourget Airport for the paris 2015 Airshow On, the first consignment of two small-batch-production (SBP) aircraft arrived in a dismantled state in pakistan. They flew for the first time on took part in a public aerial demonstration during a pakistan day parade on The paf intended to induct 200 jf-17 by 2015 to replace all its Chengdu f-7, nanchang A-5, and Dassault Mirage iii/5 aircraft. In preparation for the in-flight refuelling of jf-17s, the paf has upgraded several Mirage iiis with ifr probes for training purposes. 50 A dual-seat, combat-capable trainer was originally scheduled to begin flight testing in 2006; 20 in 2009 pakistan reportedly decided to develop the training model into a specialised attack variant. 51 52 In november 2007, the paf and pac conducted flight evaluations of aircraft fitted with a variant of the nriet klj-10 radar developed by China's Nanjing Research Institute for Electronic Technology (nriet and the letri sd-10 active radar homing aam.
36 Flight testing and redesigning edit The first prototype, pt-01, was rolled out on 18 37 and transferred to the Chengdu Flight Test Centre to be prepared for its maiden flight. 25 This was initially planned to take place in June, but was delayed due to concerns about the sars outbreak. 25 37 The designation Super-7 was replaced by "JF-17" (Joint Fighter-17) around this point. 38 Low speed taxiing trials began at Wenjiang Airport, Chengdu, on 24 The maiden flight was made in late august 2003; 18 38 an official maiden flight of the prototype took place in early september. The prototype was marked with the new paf designation jf-17. 25 by march 2004, cac had made around 20 test flights of the first prototype.
39 On, paf test pilots Rashid Habib and Mohammad Ehsan ul-Haq flew pt-01 for the first time. The maiden flight of the third prototype, pt-03, took place on 25 In March 2004, pakistan was planning to induct around 200 aircraft. 40 Following the third prototype, several design improvements were developed and incorporated into further aircraft. Because of excessive smoke emissions by the rd-93 engine, the air intakes were widened. Reported control problems found in testing resulted in alterations to the wing leading edge root extensions (lerx). The vertical tail fin was enlarged to house an expanded electronic warfare equipment bay in the tip. The redesigned aircraft had a slightly increased maximum take-off weight and incorporated an increased quantity of Chinese-sourced avionics; however paf had selected Western avionics for their aircraft, postponing paf deliveries from late 20pakistan evaluated British, French, and Italian avionics suites, the winner of which was. 43 pt-04, the fourth prototype and the first to incorporate the design changes, was rolled out in April 2006 and made its first flight on 41 44 The modified air intakes replaced conventional intake ramps—whose function is to divert turbulent boundary layer airflow away from. 41 The dsi uses a combination of forward-swept inlet cowls and a three-dimensional compression surface to divert the boundary layer airflow at high sub-sonic and supersonic speeds.
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After gec-marconi had abandoned the essay bidding to supply an integrated avionics suite, fiar and Thomson-csf proposed a number of avionics suites based on the Grifo S7 and RC400 radars respectively, despite previously hoping to use the paf's Super 7 to launch its new Blue hawk. 31 32 Because of sanctions placed on pakistan after the country's 1998 nuclear weapons tests, design work progressed very slowly over the next 18 months, preventing delivery of the western avionics to the paf. In early 2001, the paf decided to decouple the airframe from the avionics, enabling design work on the aircraft to continue. As the airframe was developed, any new avionics requirements by the paf could be more easily integrated into fuller the airframe. 25 Prototype production began in September 2002; a full-size mock-up of the fc-1/Super 7 was displayed at Airshow China in november 2002. 33 The first batch of Klimov rd-93 turbofan engines that would power the prototypes was also delivered in 2002. 24 According to a china national Aero-technology Import export Corporation (catic) official, the jf-17's low cost is due to some of the on-board systems having been adapted from those of the Chengdu j-10. The official said, "This transfer of technology—transposing the aircraft systems from the j-10 to the jf-17—is what makes the jf-17 so cost-effective". 34 35 The use of computer-aided design software shortened the design phase of the jf-17.
Competing bids came from Thomson-csf with a variant of the radar Doppler Multitarget (RDY), sagem with a similar avionics package to proofreading those used in the rose upgrade project, and Marconi Electronic Systems with its Blue hawk radar. Fiar's (now selex galileo ) Grifo S7 radar was expected to be selected due to the company's ties with the paf. 27 In February 1998, pakistan and China signed a letter of intent covering airframe development. Russia's Klimov offered a variant of the rd-33 turbofan engine to power the fighter. 28 In April 1999, south Africa's Denel offered to arm the super 7 with the t-darter beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air missile (aam rather than the previously reported r-darter. 29 Previously in 1987, Pratt whitney offered the super-7 project three engine options; PW1212, F404, and PW1216, with local manufacturing in either China or pakistan. Rolls royce offered its RB199-127/128 turbofan engine; this plan was scrapped in 1989., the contract to jointly develop and produce the Chengdu fc-1/Super 7 was signed.
a design study involving us aircraft manufacturer Grumman and China, and had decided to redesign and upgrade the Chengdu f-7. 22 In the same year, China and Grumman started a new design study to develop the super 7, another redesigned Chengdu f-7. 23 Grumman left the project when sanctions were placed on China following the political fallout from the 1989 tiananmen Square protests. After Grumman left the Chengdu super 7 project, the fighter China project was launched in 1991. 24 In 1995, pakistan and China signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for joint design and development of a new fighter, and over the next few years worked out the project details., mikoyan had joined the project to provide "design support this also involved the. 26 launch of fc-1 project edit a paf jf-17 in Turkey in 2011 In October 1995, pakistan was reportedly to select a western company by the end of the year to provide and integrate the fc-1's avionics, which was expected to go into production. The avionics were said to include radar, Inertial navigation system, head-up display, and Multi-function displays.
4 5 In 2015 pakistan produced 16 jf-17's., pakistan is believed to have the production capacity to produce 25 jf-17 per year by itself, 58 of the airframe are pakistani and 42 Chinese/Russian-origin. 6 As of December 2016, pakistan Aeronautical Complex has manufactured 70 jets in the country for use by the pakistan Air Force of the Block 1 type, 7 8 and 33 jets of the Block 2 type. 9 The pakistan Air Force plans to induct a twin-seater version for both enhanced operational capability and training, known as the jf-17B by 2017. 10 11 Preparations for a more advanced and technologically sophisticated block iii version of the aircraft is underway and the aesa radar has been developed, the klj-7A which can track 15 targets and engage 4 targets simultaneously. 12 Since its induction in 2011, the jf-17 Thunder has accumulated 19,000 hours of operational flight. 13 The jf-17 has seen active military service as it is used by the pakistan Air Force to bomb militant positions in the war in North-West pakistan, 14 using both unguided writing munitions and guided missiles for precision strike capability. 6 The nigerian Air Force has confirmed 15 it is expecting delivery of jf-17 for use in military operations against militants in Northern Nigeria. Contents development edit background edit The jf-17 was primarily developed to meet the paf's requirement for an affordable, 16 modern, multi-role combat aircraft as a replacement for its large fleet of Dassault Mirage iii /5 fighters, nanchang A-5 bombers, and Chengdu f-7 interceptors, with. 17 The aircraft was also intended to have export potential as a cost-effective and competitive alternative to more expensive western fighters.
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The, pac jf-17 Thunder urdu : - or, cac fc-1. Xiaolong chinese : ; pinyin : xiāo lóng ; literally: "Fierce Dragon is a lightweight, single-engine, multi-role combat aircraft developed jointly by the, pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) and the, chengdu aircraft Corporation (CAC). The jf-17 can be used for aerial reconnaissance, ground attack and aircraft interception. Its designation "JF-17" by, pakistan is short for "Joint Fighter-17 while the designation and name "FC-1 xiaolong" by China means "Fighter China-1 fierce Dragon". The jf-17 can deploy diverse ordnance, including air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, and a 23 mm, gSh-23-2 twin-barrel autocannon. Guizhou ws-13 or, klimov rd-93 afterburning turbofan, it has a top speed. 2, fuller the jf-17 is to become the backbone of the pakistan Air Force (paf complementing the general Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, at half the cost. 3 The paf inducted its first jf-17 squadron in February 2010.