In the 1800s, Ibsen and Chekhov favored a four-act play, and in the 1900s, most playwrights preferred a three-act model, though two-act plays are not uncommon. Action : A real or fictional event or series of such events comprising the subject of a novel, story, narrative poem, or a play, especially in the sense of what the characters do in such a narrative. Action, along with dialogue and the characters' thoughts, form the skeleton of a narrative's plot. Acute accent : A diacritical mark indicating primary stress. Acyrologia : Also called acyrology, see discussion under periphrasis. Acyron : The improper or odd application of a word, such as speaking of "streams of graces" (Shipley 5).
A now : Descriptive of a hot day, by leigh Hunt
Acrostics are also common in Kabbalistic charms and word squares, including the cirencester word square of Roman origin: rotas opera tenet arepo sator abecedarian acrostics were also a common genre in classical Hebrew poetry. For instance, psalm 118 in the douay-rheims numbering of the bible (or number 119 in the king James numbering of the bible) is an abecedarian acrostic, with each stanza headed by one of the letters of the hebrew alphabet, such as Aleph, beth, gimel, and. Similar acrostics appear in Lamentations. Renaissance examples of acrostic poetry include the preface to ben Jonson's "The Alchemist." If a poem is built so that the last letters in each line form a word, rather than the first, the poem is called a telestich. Act : A major division in a play. Often, individual acts are divided into smaller units scenes that all take place in a specific location. Originally, greek plays were not divided into acts. They took place as a single whole interrupted occasionally by the chorus ' s singing. In Roman times, a five-act structure first appeared based upon Horace's recommendations. This five-act structure became a convention of drama (and especially tragedy ) during the renaissance. (Shakespeare's plays have natural divisions that can be taken as the breaks between acts as well; later editors inserted clear "act" and "scene" markings and in these locations.) From about 1650 ce onward, most plays followed the five-act model.
They are least useful when they obscure the truth, when they enable technobabble and unnecessary jargon. Even English historical scholarship has fallen into the habit, commonly referring to the historical Great Vowel Shift as the gvs, and the Oxford English Dictionary as the oed, to give two examples. Acronymy : The act of using or creating acronyms. (see above.) acrostic : A poem in gender which the first or last letters of each line vertically form a word, phrase, or sentence. Apart from puzzles in newspapers and magazines, the most common modern versions involve the first letters of each line forming a single word when read downwards. An acrostic that involves the sequential letters of the alphabet is said to be an abecedarius or an abecedarian poem. Acrostics may have first been used as a mnemonic device to aid with oral transmission. In the Old Testament, some of the hebrew Psalms include acrostic devices. Chaucer also wrote acrostics such as his "ABC" ( Prior a nostre dame ) in his younger days.
Other examples include aids a cquired I mmune d eficiency s yndrome nimby, n ot I n m y b ack y ard and opec ( O rganization of p etroleum E xporting c ountries). In the realm of technology, we find that radar comes from. ( ra dio d etection A professional nd r anging and laser from. ( l ight A mplification by s timulated E mission of r adiation). In general, acronyms first appear with periods to indicate the abbreviations, (e. As the term becomes more widespread, the periods vanish (e.g. Laser and eventually the capitalization falls away as the word enters common usage (e.g. Note that acronyms contrast with alphabetisms, in which the word is pronounced aloud by using the names of the actual letters-such as the irs ( I nternal r evenue s ervice which is pronounced as three-syllables. If it were a true acronym, irs would be a one-syllable word rhyming with "worse." Acronyms and alphabetisms are most useful when they allow a speaker to create a new, short, efficient term for a long unwieldy phrase.
All acephalous lines by definition are catalectic. See foot and meter. Acmeism : A 1912 Russian poetry movement reacting against the symbolist movement (Harkins 1). Acmeists protested against the mystical tendencies of the symbolists; they opposed ambiguity in poetry, calling for a return to precise, concrete imagery. Prominent members of the movement include nikolay gumilyov and Sergey gorodetski. Acronym (From Greek acron onyma ; "tip or end of a name a word formed from the initial letters in a phrase. For instance, many caucasians in America are called wasps. In this acronym, the letters. Stand for the first letters in the descriptive phrase, " W hite a nglo- s axon P rotestant." Acronyms are quite common in governmental bureaucracies, in businesses, in political jargon, and in high-tech products.
Westminster Abbey john, keats
Acatalectic : A "normal" line of poetry with the expected number of syllables in sex each line, as opposed to a catalectic line (which is missing an expected syllable) or a hypercatalectic line (which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected, perhaps. See discussion under catalectic. Acatalexis : The use of acatalectic lines in poetry-see discussion under catalectic. Accent : (1) A recognizable manner of pronouncing words-often associated with a class, caste, ethnic group, or geographic region. Thus, Americans might be able to discern a boston accent or a texas accent by sound alone, or they malay might place a foreign speaker's origin by noting a french or Russian accent. (2) The degree of stress given to a syllable-an important component of meter. (3) Any diacritical mark.
Click here to view diacritical marks. Accentual rhythm : see discussion under sprung rhythm. Accentual verse : a verse pattern used heavily in Russian and czech literature. Acephalous : From Greek "headless acephalous lines are lines in normal iambic pentameter that contain only nine syllables rather than the expected ten. The first syllable, which is stressed, "counts" as a full metric foot by itself.
For instance, calling something pleasant or pleasing is abstract, while calling something yellow or sour is concrete. The word domesticity is abstract, but the word sweat is concrete. The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, apologie for poetrie. A century later, neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.
In the early 1800s, the romantic poets like wordsworth, coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra pound and. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the "objective correlative." Contrast with concrete diction / concrete imagery. Abstract poem : Verse that makes little sense grammatically or syntactically but which relies on auditory patterns to create its meaning or poetic effects; Dame Edith Sitwell popularized the term, considering this verse form the equivalent of abstract painting (Deutsche 7). Sitwell's poems from her collection façade are samples of this genre, including her poem "Hornpipe." A sample from this poem appears below: sky rhinoceros-glum Watched the courses of the breakers' rocking-horses and with Glaucis Lady venus on the settee of the horsehair sea! In deutsche 7) abusio : A type of catachresis known as the "mixed metaphor." The term is often used in a derogatory manner. See discussion and examples under catachresis.
Comparative literature » 1B:8, The limits
This is also called gradation. An example would be the principal parts of Old English strong verbs such as I sing, i sang, and I sung. Abolitionist literature : Literature, poetry, pamphlets, or propaganda written in the nineteenth century for the express purpose of condemning slaveholders, encouraging the release and emancipation of slaves, or abolishing slavery altogether. This literature might take the form of autobiographical writings (in the case of many slave narratives ) or fictional accounts such as Stowe's Uncle tom's Cabin. Such writings rely heavily on pathos for rhetorical technique. Above, the : Also called "the aloft" and sometimes used interchangeably with " the heavens this term refers to the gallery on the upper level best of the frons scenae. In Shakespeare's Globe Theater, this area contained the lords' rooms, but the center of this location was also used by the actors for short scenes. On the other hand, in most revelation indoor theaters like the Blackfriars Theater, musicians above the stage would perform in a curtained alcove here. Abstract diction / abstract imagery : Language that describes qualities that cannot be perceived with the five senses.
Ab ovo (Latin, "from the egg This phrase refers to a narrative that starts at the beginning of the plot, and then moves chronologically through a sequence of events to the tale's conclusion. This pattern is the opposite of a tale that begins in medias res, pdf one in which the narrative starts "in the middle of things well into the middle of the plot, and then proceeds to explain earlier events through the characters' dialogue, memories, or flashbacks. Horace coins the phrase in his treatise, ars poeticae, a treatise not to be confused with the poetics of Aristotle. Contrast with in medias res. Abecedarian : see discussion under acrostic, below. Abecedarius : see discussion under acrostic, below. Ablative case : Click here for expanded discussion. Ablaut : Jacob Grimm's term for the way in which Old English strong verbs formed their preterites by a vowel change.
general, these are inductive arguments in which the thinker puts forth a belief or proposition as a universal rule she or he puts forth in response to an example seen in nature-the specific observed example comes first, and the logical argument follows. A priori : In rhetoric, logic, and philosophy, an argument is said to be a priori if its truth can be known or inferred independently of any direct perception. Logic, geometry, and mathematics are usually held as such (Palmer 381). In general, these a priori arguments rely upon deductive reasoning-fashioning a general statement that should (in terms of logic) be true, and then applying the argument to a specific instance-i. E., the universal statement comes first, and then specific applications in the real world are expected to match. Abbey theatre : The center of the Irish Dramatic movment founded in 1899. Yeats and Lady Gregory, built with the express purpose of presenting Irish plays performed by Irish actors. It opened in 1904 and began showing plays by almost every Irish playwright of renown.
Fiction, browse literature, thrillers, mysteries, and more. Latest from the Blog, all Blog Posts 2018 Turner Publishing. K, literary terms and Definitions: a, this page is under perpetual construction! It was last updated word April 24, 2018. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. B c, d e, f g, h i, j k, l m,.
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