Kalam served as the Chief Project coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase. 11 31 Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country's best known nuclear scientist. 32 However, the director of the site test, k santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a " fizzle " and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. 33 Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims. 34 In 1998, along with cardiologist Soma raju, kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent". 35 36 In 2012, the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas, which was named the "Kalam-Raju tablet". 37 Presidency kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by lakshmi sahgal.
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Kalam was invited by raja ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of tbrl, even though he had not participated in its development. In the 1970s, kalam also directed two projects, Project devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful slv programme. 28 Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, prime minister Indira gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship. 28 Kalam played writing an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects. 28 His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile programme under his directorship. 28 Kalam and Dr runachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the defence minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence minister,. Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another. 29 r venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating 388 crores for the mission, named Integrated guided Missile development Programme (igmdp) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive. 29 Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns. 29 30 Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime minister and Secretary of the defence research and development Organisation from July 1992 to december 1999. The pokhran-ii nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role.
24 Career as a scientist This was my first stage, in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers—Dr vikram Sarabhai, prof Satish Dhawan and Dr Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for. abdul Kalam 25 After graduating from the madras Institute of Technology in 1960, kalam joined the aeronautical development Establishment of the defence research and development Organisation (by Press Information Bureau, government of India) as a scientist after becoming a member of the defence research development. He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at drdo. 26 Kalam was also part of the incospar committee working under vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. 13 In 1969, kalam was transferred to the Indian Space research Organisation (isro) where he was the project director of India's first Satellite launch margaret Vehicle ( slv -iii) which successfully deployed the rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work. 1 In 1969, kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers. 25 Kalam addresses engineering students at iit guwahati In 1963 to 1964, he visited nasa 's Langley research Center in Hampton, virginia ; Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, maryland ; and Wallops Flight Facility. 11 27 Between the 1970s and 1990s, kalam made an effort to develop the polar Satellite launch Vehicle (pslv) and slv-iii projects, both of which proved to be successful.
19 by his early childhood, kalam's family had become poor; at an early age, he sold newspapers to supplement his family's income. In his school years, kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics. 21 After completing his education at the Schwartz higher supermarket Secondary School, ramanathapuram, kalam went on to attend saint Joseph's College, tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954. 22 he moved to madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. 13 While kalam was working on a senior class project, the dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the dean, who later said to him, "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline". 23 he narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the iaf.
8 Contents Early life and education avul pakir jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on to a tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil Nadu. His father jainulabdeen was a boat owner and imam of a local mosque; 9 his mother Ashiamma was a housewife. His father owned a ferry that took hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram and the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi. 14 15 Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family. His ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a result, the family acquired the title of "Mara kalam iyakkivar" (wooden boat steerers which over the years became shortened to "Marakier." With the opening of the pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, however, the businesses failed and the family fortune and properties.
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He was born and raised. Rameswaram, tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the. Defence research and development Organisation (drdo) and, indian Space research Organisation (isro) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. 1, he thus came to be known as the. Missile man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. 2 3 4, he also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's.
Pokhran-ii nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. 5 Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya janata party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President 6 he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, india's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on, aged. 7 Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
Following his death, the tamil Nadu state government announced that his birthday, 15 October, would be observed across the state as "Youth Renaissance day". Kalam was a life-long bachelor. He had four elder siblingsone sister and three brotherswith whom he had close relations. He was a very simple person with just a few personal possessions. Death, he remained active until the last day of his life. He was scheduled to deliver a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong on Only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed and was rushed to the bethany hospital where he was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest.
His last rites were performed in his hometown, rameswaram. Timeline 1931: Born in Rameswaram, tamil Nadu, india 1954: Graduated from the saint Joseph's College, tiruchirappalli 1960: joined the aeronautical development Establishment of the defence research and development Organisation (drdo) 1969: Transferred to the Indian Space research Organisation (isro) 1970s: Directed Project devil and Project. This article is about the former President of India. For the Indian freedom fighter, see. In this, indian name, the name, avul pakir jainulabdeen is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, abdul Kalam. Avul pakir jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( /æbdəl kəlɑm/ ( listen ) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th, president of India from 2002 to 2007.
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He also with kindled controversy with his decision to impose President's Rule in Bihar in 2005. At the end of his term he decided not to contest the Presidential election again and stepped down on Post-Presidency, after leaving the presidents office he became the chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram and professor of Aerospace Engineering. He also became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore, and taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, hyderabad. As an Author, abdul Kalam was also a noted author who had penned books like india 2020: a vision for the new Millennium (1998 wings of Fire: An Autobiography (1999 Ignited Minds: Unleashing the power Within India (2002 and a manifesto for Change: a sequel. Awards and Honors,. Abdul Kalam has been honored with several prestigious awards from the government of India including the padma Bhushan in 1981, the padma vibhushan in 1990, and the Bharat Ratna in 1997. He was also the recipient of the von Braun Award (2013) golf from the national Space society "to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project".
In the wallpaper 1970s he also worked on the development of ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful slv program and directed the projects Project devil and Project Valiant which were aimed at producing a short-range surface-to-air missile. Even though the projects were discontinued in 1980 without achieving full success, they earned Kalam great respect and admiration from the scientific fraternity. Return to drdo, in 1980s, the government decided to initiate an advanced missile program under his directorship and thus the Integrated guided Missile development Program (igmdp) was launched with Kalam as the chief executive. The program which aimed at the research and development of a comprehensive range of missiles started in 1982-83. Under the able guidance of Kalam, several missiles including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, were developed. Kalam stood for presidency in 2002 and easily won the 2002 presidential election. He had the support of both the ruling Bharatiya janata party and the opposition Indian National Congress and was sworn in as the 11th president of the republic of India on he was the first scientist to occupy rashtrapati Bhawan. He was a popular president who was much respected by the citizens of the country. However, he was also criticized for his inaction in deciding the fate of the majority of the mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure.
the defence research and development Organisation (drdo) as a scientist. One of the first projects he worked on was to design a small helicopter for the Indian Army. He also got the opportunity to work with the renowned space scientist, vikram Sarabhai as a part of the incospar committee. However, kalam was not much satisfied with his career at the drdo. Career at isro, kalam was transferred to the Indian Space research Organisation (isro) in 1969 as the project director of India's first Satellite launch Vehicle (slv-iii). An expandable rocket project on which he had started working independently in 1965 got the governments approval for expansion in 1969. Over the next several years he developed the polar Satellite launch Vehicle (pslv) and slv-iii projects, both of which proved to be successful.
He became the President of guaranteed India in 2002 and was known as the people's President. He left the office after serving one term and became professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University and a visiting professor at several other institutions. Childhood early life, abdul Kalam was born as the youngest of five children of a muslim boat owner named jainulabudeen and his wife Ashiamma, in Rameswaram, tamil Nadu. His ancestors had once been wealthy traders though his family lost much of its fortunes by the early 20th century. Kalam grew up in humble surroundings and had to take up a job while he was still in school in order to augment his familys meager incomehe distributed newspapers to help his father in providing for the family. He was a bright young boy, blessed with a thirst for knowledge and was always eager to learn new things. He completed his schooling from Ramanathapuram Schwartz matriculation School and proceeded to study physics at the saint Joseph's College, tiruchirappalli, from where he graduated in 1954.
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Apj abdul Kalam, the 11th Indian president, was a notable scientist engineer. Read about his life history in this concise biography. Born On -, born In - rameswaram, tamil Nadu, india, died father's On - career - scientist, nationality - indian, avul pakir jainulabdeen. Abdul Kalam was a scientist and engineer, who served as the President of India from 2002 to 2007. Already a highly accomplished and much respected individual when elected to be the president, kalam had spent four decades as a scientist and science administrator at several prestigious organizations like the defence research and development Organisation (drdo) and Indian Space research Organisation (isro). Born into a family of humble means in Tamil Nadu, kalam went on to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. His initial dream was to become a fighter pilot but he failed to qualify for the Indian Air Force. He then started working at the defence research and development Organisation (drdo) as a scientist and was later transferred to the Indian Space research Organisation (isro). Eventually he was appointed as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime minister and in this position he played a key role in the pokharan ii nuclear tests.