We were tired of all the lights after a while. We were worried about the traffic leaving the parking lot. A- adjectives The most common of the so-called a- adjectives are ablaze, afloat, afraid, aghast, alert, alike, alive, alone, aloof, ashamed, asleep, averse, awake, aware. These adjectives will primarily show up as predicate adjectives (i.e., they come after a linking verb). The children were ashamed. The professor remained aloof. The trees were ablaze.
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We were excited writing by the lion-tamer. We were excited about the high-wire act, too. We were frightened by the lions. We were introduced to the ringmaster. We were interested in the tent. We were irritated by the heat. We were opposed to leaving early. We were satisfied with the circus. We were shocked at the level of noise under the big tent. We were surprised by the fans' response. We were surprised at their indifference.
We were presentation amused by the clowns. We were annoyed by the elephants. We were bored by the ringmaster. We were confused by the noise. We were disappointed by the motorcycle daredevils. We were disappointed in their performance. We were embarrassed by my brother. We were exhausted from all the excitement.
Applying the same rule that applies to good versus well, use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. If you said you felt badly, it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. Other Adjectival Considerations review the section on Compound nouns and Modifiers for the formation of modifiers created when words are connected: a four-year-old child, a nineteenth-century novel, golf an empty-headed fool. Review the section on Possessives for a distinction between possessive forms and "adjectival labels." (do you belong to a writers Club or a writers' Club?) Adjectives that are really participles, verb forms with -ing and -ed endings, can be troublesome for some students. It is one thing to be a frightened child; it is an altogether different matter to be a frightening child. Do you want to go up to your professor after class and say that you are confused or that you are confusing? Generally, the -ed ending means that the noun so described you has a passive relationship with something something (the subject matter, the presentation) has bewildered you and you are confus. The -ing ending means that the noun described has a more active role you are not making any sense so you are confus ing (to others, including your professor). The -ed ending modifiers are often accompanied by prepositions (these are not the only choices we were amazed at all the circus animals.
He knows only too well who the murderer. However, when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses, you want to use the adjective instead. I'm feeling good, thank you. After a bath, the baby smells so good. Even after my careful paint job, this room doesn't look good. Many careful writers, however, will use well after linking verbs relating to health, and this is perfectly all right. In fact, to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you're ok physically but also that your spirits are high. "How are you?" "I am well, thank you." Bad versus Badly When your cat died (assuming you loved your cat did you feel bad or badly?
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If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix you will have to consult a dictionary, as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty. The meaning itself can be tricky; for instance, flammable and inflammable mean the same preparing thing. A third means for creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. It is kinder to say that "This is the least beautiful city in the state." than it is to say that "This is the ugliest city in the state." (It also has a slightly different meaning.) A candidate for a job can still be worthy.
It's probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already a negative: "he is less unlucky than his brother although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people; use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. My mother is less patient than my father. Of all the new sitcoms, this is my least favorite show. Some Adjectival Problem Children good versus Well In both casual speech and formal writing, we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. With most verbs, there is no contest: when modifying a verb, use the adverb.
See the section on Capitalization for further help on this matter. Collective adjectives When the definite article, the, is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people, the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor, the rich, the oppressed, the homeless, the lonely, the unlettered, the unwashed, the gathered, the dear. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: The rural poor have been ignored by the media. The rich of Connecticut are responsible. The elderly are beginning to demand their rights.
The young at heart are always a joy to be around. Adjectival Opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. One way, of course, is to find an adjective to mean the opposite an antonym. The opposite of beautiful is ugly, the opposite of tall is short. A thesaurus can help you find an appropriate opposite. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate, the opposite of prudent is imprudent, the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate, the opposite of honorable is dishonorable, the opposite of alcoholic is nonalcoholic, the opposite of being properly filed is misfiled.
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We could say presentation these are "inexpensive but comfortable shoes so we would use a comma between them (when the "but" isn't there). When you have three coordinated adjectives, separate them all with commas, but don't insert a comma between the last adjective and the noun (in spite of the temptation to do so because you often pause there a popular, respected, and good looking student see the. Capitalizing Proper Adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun, it should probably be capitalized. Thus we write about Christian music, French fries, the English Parliament, the ming Dynasty, a faulknerian style, jeffersonian democracy. Some periods of time have taken on the status of proper adjectives: the nixon era, a renaissance/Romantic/Victorian poet (but a contemporary novelist and medieval writer). Directional and seasonal adjectives are not capitalized unless they're part of a title: we took the northwest route during the spring essay thaw. We stayed there until the town's annual Fall Festival of Small Appliances.
There is, however, a pattern. You will find many exceptions to the pattern in the table below, but it is definitely important to learn the pattern of adjective order if dunkirk it is not part of what you naturally bring to the language. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Determiners articles and other limiters. See determiners Observation postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting) size and Shape adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round) Age adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient) Color. If you click here, you will get a one-page duplicate of this chart, which you can print out on a regular piece of paper. It would be folly, of course, to run more than two or three (at the most) adjectives together. Furthermore, when adjectives belong to the same class, they become what we call coordinated adjectives, and you will want to put a comma between them: the inexpensive, comfortable shoes. The rule for inserting the comma works this way: if you could have inserted a conjunction and or but between the two adjectives, use a comma.
they appear in a set order according to category. Below.) When indefinite pronouns such as something, someone, anybody are modified by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun: And there are certain adjectives that, in combination with certain words, are always "postpositive" (coming after the thing they modify see, also, the note. Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees: be careful not to form comparatives or superlatives of adjectives which already express an extreme of comparison unique, for instance although it probably is possible to form comparative forms of most adjectives: something can. People who argue that one woman cannot be more pregnant than another have never been nine-months pregnant with twins. Be careful, also, not to use more along with a comparative adjective formed with -er nor to use most along with a superlative adjective formed with -est (e.g., do not write that something is more heavier or most heaviest ). Both adverbs and adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by premodifiers, single words and phrases, that intensify the degree. And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used for this purpose: If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required: Occasionally, the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood: The. Most other languages dictate a similar order, but not necessarily the same order. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive, because the order often seems quite arbitrary (if not downright capricious).
It is your job as a writer daddy to create beauty and excitement and interest, and when you simply insist on its presence without showing it to your reader well, you're convincing no one. Consider the uses of modifiers in this adjectivally rich paragraph from Thomas Wolfe's. (Charles Scribner's, 1929,. 69.) Adjectives are highlighted in this color ; participles, verb forms acting as adjectives, are highlighted in this blue. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name like ". East India tea, house are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns father's, farmer's are not technically adjectives, but we've included them in our analysis of Wolfe's text. An abundance of adjectives like this would be uncommon in contemporary prose. Whether we have lost something or not is left up to you.
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Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. Articles a, an, and the are adjectives. If a group father's of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective, it is called. My sister, who is much older than i am, is an engineer. If an adjective clause is stripped of its subject and verb, the resulting modifier becomes. Adjective phrase : he is the man who is keeping my family in the poorhouse. Before getting into other usage considerations, one general note about the use or over-use of adjectives: Adjectives are frail; don't ask them to do more work than they should. Let your broad-shouldered verbs and nouns do the hard work of description. Be particularly cautious in your use of adjectives that don't have much to say in the first place: interesting, beautiful, lovely, exciting.