Oxbridge proofreading review

oxbridge proofreading review

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It does not appear in the table of contents. Page needed Introductory poem edit ben Jonson wrote a preface to the folio with this poem facing the Droeshout portrait: This Figure, that thou here seest put, It was for gentle Shakespeare cut: Wherein the Grauer had a strife with Nature, to out-doo the life:. But, since he cannot, reader, looke not on his picture, but his booke. Compositors edit As far as modern scholarship has been able to determine, the first Folio texts were set into type by five compositors, with different spelling habits, peculiarities, and levels of competence. Researchers have labelled them A through e, a being the most accurate, and e an apprentice who had significant difficulties in dealing with manuscript copy. Their shares in typesetting the pages of the folio break down like this: Comedies Histories Tragedies Total pages "A" "B" "C" "D" "E" Compositor "E" was most likely one john leason, whose apprenticeship contract dated only from 4 november 1622. One of the other four might have been a john Shakespeare, of Warwickshire, who apprenticed with Jaggard in 161017.

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27 Titus Andronicus typeset from a copy of Q3 that might have served as a prompt-book. 28 Romeo and Juliet in essence a reprint. 29 Timon of Athens * set from Shakespeare's foul papers or a transcript hook of them. 30 Julius caesar * set from a prompt-book, or a transcript of a prompt-book. 31 Macbeth * probably set from a prompt-book, perhaps detailing an adaptation of the play for a short indoor performance 32 Hamlet one of the most difficult problems in the first Folio: probably typeset from some combination of Q2 and manuscript sources. 33 King lear a difficult problem: probably set mainly from Q1 but with reference to Q2, and corrected against week a prompt-book. 34 Othello another difficult problem: probably typeset from Q1, corrected with a quality manuscript. 35 Antony and Cleopatra * possibly "foul papers" or a transcript of them. 36 Cymbeline * possibly another Ralph Crane transcript, or else the official prompt-book. Troilus and Cressida was originally intended to follow Romeo and Juliet, but the typesetting was stopped, probably due to a conflict over the rights to the play; it was later inserted as the first of the tragedies, when the rights question was resolved.

17 Henry iv, part 1 typeset from an assignment edited copy. 18 Henry iv, part 2 uncertain: some combination of manuscript and quarto text. 19 Henry v typeset from Shakespeare's "foul papers." 20 Henry vi, part 1 * likely from an annotated transcript of the author's manuscript. 21 Henry vi, part 2 probably a shakespearean manuscript used as a prompt-book. 22 Henry vi, part 3 like 2H6, probably a shakespearean prompt-book. 23 Richard iii a difficult case: probably typeset partially from Q3, and partially from Q6 corrected against a manuscript (maybe "foul papers. 24 Henry viii * typeset from a fair copy of the authors' manuscript. Tragedies 25 Troilus and Cressida probably typeset from the quarto, corrected with Shakespeare's "foul papers printed after the rest of the folio was completed. 26 Coriolanus * set from a high-quality authorial transcript.

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7 love's Labour's Lost typeset from a corrected copy. 8 a midsummer Night's Dream typeset from a copy of reviews Q2, well-annotated, possibly used as a prompt-book. 9 The merchant of Venice typeset from a lightly edited and corrected copy. 10 As you like it * from a quality manuscript, lightly annotated by a prompter. 11 The taming of the Shrew * typeset from Shakespeare's "foul papers somewhat annotated, perhaps as preparation for use as a prompt-book. 12 All's Well That Ends Well * probably from Shakespeare's "foul papers" or a manuscript of them. 13 Twelfth Night * typeset either from a prompt-book or a transcript of one. 14 The winter's Tale * another transcript by ralph Crane. Histories 15 King John * uncertain: owl a prompt-book, or "foul papers." 16 Richard ii typeset from Q3 and Q5, corrected against a prompt-book.

Citation needed The label Q n denotes the n th quarto edition of a play. Table of Contents from the first Folio comedies 1 The tempest * the play was set into type from a manuscript prepared by ralph Crane, a professional scrivener employed by the king's Men. Crane produced a high-quality result, with formal act/scene divisions, frequent use of parentheses and hyphenated forms, and other identifiable features. 2 The Two gentlemen of Verona * another transcript by ralph Crane. 3 The merry wives of Windsor another transcript by ralph Crane. 4 measure for measure * probably another Ralph Crane transcript. 5 The comedy of Errors * probably typeset from Shakespeare's "foul papers lightly annotated. 6 Much Ado About Nothing typeset from a copy of the quarto, lightly annotated.

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oxbridge proofreading review

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Smethwick had been a business partner of another Jaggard, william's brother John. The printing of the folio was probably done between February 1622 and early november 1623. It is possible that the printer originally expected to have the book ready early, since it was listed in the Frankfurt book fair catalogue as a book to appear between April and October 1622, but the catalog contained many books not yet printed by 1622. The first impression had a publication date of 1623, and the earliest record of a retail purchase is an account book entry for 5 December 1623 essay of Edward Dering (who purchased two the bodleian Library, in Oxford, received its copy in early 1624 (which. Contents edit The 36 plays of the first Folio occur in the order given below; plays that had never been published before 1623 are marked with an asterisk.

Each play is followed by the type of source used, as determined by bibliographical research. The term foul papers refers to Shakespeare's working drafts of a play. When completed, a transcript or fair copy of the foul papers would be prepared, by the author or by a scribe. Such a manuscript would have to be heavily annotated with accurate and detailed stage directions and all the other data needed for performance, and then could serve as a prompt book, to be used by the prompter to guide a performance of the play. Any of these manuscripts, in any combination, could be used as a source for a printed text. On rare occasions a printed text might be annotated for use as a prompt book, as may have been the case with a midsummer Night's Dream.

The octavo generally carried greater prestige, so the format itself would help to elevate their standing. Ultimately, however, the choice was a financial one: Venus and Adonis in octavo needed four sheets of paper, versus seven in quarto, and the octavo the rape of Lucrece needed five sheets, versus 12 in quarto. Whatever the motivation, the move seems to have had the intended effect: Francis Meres, the first known literary critic to comment on Shakespeare, in his Palladis Tamia (1598 puts it thus: "the sweete wittie soule of ouid liues in mellifluous hony-tongued Shakespeare, witnes his Venus. Pray tell me ben, where does the mystery lurk, what others call a play you call a work. — anonymous, wits Recreations' (1640) Publishing literary works in folio was not unprecedented.


Starting with the publication of Sir Philip Sidney 's The countess of Pembroke's Arcadia (1593) and Astrophel and Stella (1598 both published by william Ponsonby, there was a significant number of folios published, and a significant number of them were published by the men who. H But quarto was the typical format for plays printed in the period: folio was a prestige format, typically used, according to Fredson Bowers, for books of "superior merit or some permanent value". Printing edit The contents of the first Folio were compiled by john Heminges and Henry condell ; the members of the Stationers Company who published the book were the booksellers Edward Blount and the father/son team of William and Isaac Jaggard. William Jaggard has seemed an odd choice by the king's Men because he had published the questionable collection The passionate pilgrim as Shakespeare's, and in 1619 had printed new editions of 10 Shakespearean quartos to which he did not have clear rights, some with false. Indeed, his contemporary Thomas heywood, whose poetry jaggard had pirated and misattributed to Shakespeare, specifically reports that Shakespeare was "much offended with. Jaggard (that altogether unknown to him) presumed to make so bold with his name." Heminges and Condell emphasised that the folio was replacing the earlier publications, which they characterised as "stol'n and surreptitious copies, maimed and deformed by frauds and stealths of injurious impostors asserting. It is thought that the typesetting and printing of the first Folio was such a large job that the king's Men simply needed the capacities of the jaggards' shop. William Jaggard was old, infirm and blind by 1623, and died a month before the book went on sale; most of the work in the project must have been done by his son Isaac. Comparison of the " to be, or not to be " soliloquy in the first three editions of Hamlet, showing the varying quality of the text in the bad quarto, the good quarto and the first Folio the first Folio's publishing syndicate also included two.

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First (might I chuse) I would be bound to wipe, where he discharged last reviews his Glister-pipe. — henry fitzgeffrey, certain Elegies (1618) Editions of individual plays were typically published in quarto and could be bought for 6 d (equivalent to 4 in 2016) without a binding. These editions were primarily intended to be cheap and convenient, and read until worn out or repurposed as wrapping paper (or worse rather than high quality objects kept in a library. Customers who wanted to keep a particular play would have to have it bound, and would typically bind several related or miscellany plays into one volume. Octavos, though nominally cheaper to produce, were somewhat different. 15956 ( Venus and Adonis ) and 1598 ( The rape of Lucrece shakespeare's narrative poems were published in octavo. In The cambridge companion to Shakespeare's First Folio, tara. Lyons argues that this was partly due to the publisher, john Harrison 's, desire to capitalize on the poems' association with ovid : the Greek classics were sold in octavo, so printing Shakespeare's poetry in the same format would strengthen the association.

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The quarto format was made by folding a large sheet of printing paper twice, forming 4 leaves with 8 pages. The paragraph average quarto measured 7 by 9 inches (18 by 23 cm) and was made up. . 9 sheets, giving 72 total pages. Octavos—made by folding a sheet of the same size three times, forming 8 leaves with 16 pages—were about half as large as a quarto. Since the cost of paper represented. . 5075 of a book's total production costs, octavos were generally cheaper to manufacture than quartos, and a common way to reduce publishing costs was to reduce the number of pages needed by compressing (using two columns or a smaller typeface) or abbreviating the text. Publish me in the Smallest size, least I bee eaten vnder Pippin-pyes. Or in th Apothicaryes shop bee seene to wrap Druggs: or to dry tobacco.

161718, but a monument in poets' corner in Westminster Abbey f was not realised until 1740. William Basse wrote an elegiac poem on him. . 161820, but no notices were taken of his death in diplomatic correspondence or newsletters on the continent, nor were any tributes published by european contemporaries. William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke —who at the time held the post of Lord Chamberlain, with authority over the king's Men, and directly in charge of Shakespeare as a groom of the Chamber —made no note of his passing. G Shakespeare's works—both poetic and dramatic—had a rich history in print before the publication of the first Folio: from the first publications of Venus and Adonis (1593) and The rape of Lucrece (1594 78 individual printed editions of his works are known. 30 (23) of these editions are his poetry, and the remaining. . 70 (55) his plays. Counting by number of editions published before 1623, the best-selling works were venus and Adonis (12 editions The rape of Lucrece (6 editions and Henry iv, part 1 (6 editions). Of the 23 editions of the poems, 16 were published in octavo ; the rest, and almost all of the editions of the plays, were printed in quarto.

Although 18 of Shakespeare's plays had been published in quarto before 1623, the first Folio is arguably the only revelation reliable text for about 20 of the plays, and a valuable source text for many of those previously published. The folio includes all of the plays generally accepted to be Shakespeare's, with the exception. Pericles, Prince of Tyre, the Two noble kinsmen, and the two lost plays, cardenio and, love's Labour's Won. Contents, background edit, poets' corner, kent's 1740 Shakespeare memorial at centre, further information: Shakespeare's life, funerary monument, reputation, and plays in quarto. On, b William Shakespeare died in Stratford-upon-avon, and was buried in the chancel of the Church of the holy Trinity two days later. After a long career as an actor, dramatist, and sharer in the lord Chamberlain's Men (later the king's Men ) from. . 158590 c until. . 161013, d he was financially well off and among England's most popular dramatists, both on the stage and in print.

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William Shakespeare's Comedies, histories, tragedies is the 1623 published the collection. William Shakespeare 's plays. Modern scholars commonly refer to it as the. A, the first Folio is considered one of the most influential books ever published in the English language. Printed in folio format and containing 36 plays (see list of Shakespeare's plays it was prepared by Shakespeare's colleagues. John Heminges and, henry condell. It was dedicated to the "incomparable pair of brethren". William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and his brother, philip Herbert, earl of Montgomery (later 4th Earl of Pembroke).


Oxbridge proofreading review
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