Top Panini (of Shalatula) (ca 520-460 BC) Gandhara (India) Panini's great accomplishment was his study of the sanskrit language, especially in his text Ashtadhyayi. Although this work might be considered the very first study of linguistics or grammar, it used a non-obvious elegance that would not be equaled in the west until the 20th century. Linguistics may seem an unlikely qualification for a "great mathematician but language theory is a field of mathematics. The works of eminent 20th-century linguists and computer scientists like chomsky, backus, post and Church are seen to resemble panini's work 25 centuries earlier. Panini's systematic study of Sanskrit may have inspired the development of Indian science and algebra. Panini has been called "the Indian Euclid" since the rigor of his grammar is comparable to euclid's geometry. Although his great texts have been preserved, little else is known about Panini.

## Srinivasa, ramanujan - wikipedia

Pythagoras' successor was apparently Theano herself: the pythagoreans were one of the few ancient schools to practice gender equality. Pythagoras discovered that harmonious intervals in music are based on simple rational numbers. This led to a fascination with integers and mystic numerology; he is sometimes called the "Father of Numbers" and once said "Number rules the universe." (About the mathematical basis of music, leibniz later wrote, "Music is the pleasure the human soul experiences from counting without. The pythagorean Theorem was known long before pythagoras, but he was often credited (before discovery of an ancient Chinese text) with the first proof. He may have discovered the simple parametric form of primitive pythagorean triplets (xx-yy, 2xy, xxyy), although the first explicit mention of this may be in Euclid's Elements. Other discoveries of the pythagorean school include the construction of the regular pentagon, concepts of perfect and amicable numbers, polygonal numbers, golden ratio (attributed to Theano three of the five regular solids (attributed to pythagoras himself and irrational numbers (attributed to hippasus). It is said that the discovery of irrational numbers upset the pythagoreans so much they tossed Hippasus into the ocean! (Another version has Hippasus banished for revealing the secret for constructing the sphere which circumscribes a dodecahedron.) In addition to parmenides, the famous successors of Thales and Pythagoras include zeno of Elea (see below hippocrates of Chios (see below Plato of Athens (ca 428-348. These early Greeks ushered in a golden Age of Mathematics and Philosophy unequaled in Europe until the renaissance. The emphasis was on pure, rather than teejay practical, mathematics. Plato (who ranks 40 on Michael Hart's famous list of the most Influential Persons in History) decreed book that his scholars should do geometric construction solely with compass and straight-edge rather than with "carpenter's tools" like rulers and protractors.

He believed thinking was located in the brain rather than heart. The words philosophy and mathematics are said to have been coined by pythagoras. He is supposed to have invented the pythagorean Cup, a clever wine goblet which punishes a drinker who greedily fills his thesis cup to the top by then using siphon pressure to drain the cup. Despite pythagoras' historical importance i may have ranked him too high: many results of the pythagoreans were due to his students; none of their writings survive; and what is known is reported second-hand, and possibly exaggerated, by Plato and others. Some ideas attributed to him were probably first enunciated by successors like parmenides of Elea (ca 515-440 BC). Archaeologists now believe that he was not first to invent the diatonic scale: Here is a diatonic-scale song from Ugarit which predates Pythagoras by eight centuries. Pythagoras' students included Hippasus of Metapontum, the famous anatomist and physician Alcmaeon, milo of Croton, and Croton's daughter Theano (who may have been Pythagoras's wife). The term Pythagorean was also adopted by many disciples who lived later; these disciples include Philolaus of Croton, the natural philosopher Empedocles, and several other famous Greeks.

Apastambha's work uses the excellent (continued fraction) writings approximation 2 577/408, a result probably derived with a geometric argument. Apastambha built on the work of earlier Vedic scholars, especially baudhayana, as well as Harappan and (probably) Mesopotamian mathematicians. His notation and proofs were primitive, and there is little certainty about his life. However similar comments apply to Thales of Miletus, so it seems fair to mention Apastambha (who was perhaps the most creative vedic mathematician before panini) along with Thales as one of the earliest mathematicians whose name is known. Top Pythagoras of Samos (ca 578-505 BC) Greek domain Pythagoras, who is sometimes called the "First Philosopher studied under Anaximander, Egyptians, babylonians, and the mystic Pherekydes (from whom Pythagoras acquired a belief in reincarnation he became the most influential of early Greek mathematicians. He is credited with being first to use axioms and deductive proofs, so his influence on Plato and Euclid may be enormous; he is generally credited with much of books i and ii of Euclid's Elements. He and his students (the "Pythagoreans were ascetic mystics for whom mathematics was partly a spiritual tool. (Some occultists treat Pythagoras as a wizard and founding mystic philosopher.) Pythagoras was very interested in astronomy and seems to have been the first man to realize that the earth was a globe similar to the other planets. He and his followers began to study the question of planetary motions, which would not be resolved for more than two millenia.

It is said he once leased all available olive presses after predicting a good olive season; he did this not for the wealth itself, but as a demonstration of the use of intelligence in business. Thales' writings have not survived and are known only second-hand. Since his famous theorems of geometry were probably already known in ancient Babylon, his importance derives from imparting the notions of mathematical proof and the scientific method to ancient Greeks. Thales' student and successor was Anaximander, who is often called the "First Scientist" instead of Thales: his theories were more firmly based on experimentation and logic, while Thales still relied on some animistic interpretations. Anaximander is famous for astronomy, cartography and sundials, and also enunciated a theory of evolution, that land species somehow developed from primordial fish! Anaximander's most famous student, in turn, was Pythagoras. (The methods of Thales and Pythagoras led to the schools of Plato and Euclid, an intellectual blossoming unequaled until Europe's Renaissance. For this reason Thales may belong on this list for his historical importance despite his relative lack of mathematical achievements.) Top Apastambha (ca 630-560 BC) India the Dharmasutra composed by Apastambha contains mensuration techniques, novel geometric construction techniques, a method of elementary algebra, and what.

### Srinivasa, ramanujan - wik"

The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about 1300 bc and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy. Baudhayana lived about 800 bc and also wrote on algebra and geometry; Yajnavalkya lived about the same time and is credited with the then-best approximation. Apastambha did work summarized below; other early vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations. Other early cultures also developed some mathematics. The ancient mayans apparently had a place-value system with zero before the hindus did; Aztec architecture implies practical geometry skills. Ancient China certainly developed mathematics, in fact the first known proof of the pythagorean Theorem is found in a chinese book ( Zhoubi suanjing ) which might have been written about 1000. Top Thales of Miletus (ca bc) Greek domain Thales was the Chief of the "seven Sages" of ancient Greece, and has been called the "Father of Science the "Founder of Abstract geometry and the "First Philosopher." Thales is believed to have studied mathematics under Egyptians.

Thales may have invented the notion of compass-and-straightedge construction. Several fundamental theorems about triangles are attributed to Thales, including the law of similar triangles (which Thales used famously to calculate the height of the Great Pyramid) and "Thales' Theorem" itself: the fact that any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. (The other "theorems" were probably more like well-known axioms, but Thales proved Thales' Theorem using two of his other theorems; it is said that Thales then sacrificed an ox to celebrate what might have been the first mathematical proof in Greece.) Thales noted that, given. Thales was also an astronomer; he invented the 365-day calendar, introduced the use of Ursa minor for finding North, invented the gnomonic map projection (the first of many methods known today to map (part of) the surface of a sphere to a plane, and. His theories of physics would seem quaint today, but he seems to have been the first to describe magnetism and static electricity. Aristotle said, "to thales the primary question was not what do we know, but how feelings do we know." Thales was also a politician, ethicist, and military strategist.

The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known. Also at least 3600 years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript (now called the, rhind Papyrus itself a copy of a late middle kingdom text. It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions. (Today, egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians. To divide 17 grain bushels among 21 workers, the equation 17/21 1/2 1/6 1/7 has practical value, especially when compared with the "greedy" decomposition 17/21 1/2 1/4 1/17 1/1428.) The pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives.

Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system. But although their base-60 system survives (e.g. In the division of hours and degrees into minutes and seconds) the babylonian notation, which used the equivalent of iiiiii xxxxxiiiiiii xxxxiii to denote 41743/60, was unwieldy compared to the "ten digits of the hindus." (In 2016 historians were surprised to decode ancient Babylonian texts. Although the ancient Hindu mathematician Apastambha had achieved a good approximation for 2, and the ancient Babylonians an ever better 2, neither of these ancient cultures achieved a π approximation as good as Egypt's, or better than π 25/8, until the Alexandrian era. Early vedic mathematicians The greatest mathematics before the golden Age of Greece was in India's early vedic (Hindu) civilization. The vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals.

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Following are the top mathematicians in chronological (birth-year) order. (By the way, the ranking assigned to biography a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio. earliest mathematicians, little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous. Ishango bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic. The markings include six prime numbers (5, 7, 11, essay 13, 17, 19) in order, though this is probably coincidence. The advanced artifacts of Egypt's Old Kingdom and the Indus-Harrapa civilization imply strong mathematical skill, but the first written evidence of advanced arithmetic dates from Sumeria, where 4500-year old clay tablets show multiplication and division problems; the first abacus may be about this old. By 3600 years ago, mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system (in base 60, not 10). Babylonians were familiar with the pythagorean Theorem, solutions to quadratic equations, even cubic equations (though they didn't have a general solution for these and eventually even developed methods to estimate terms for compound interest.

Imagination encircles the world. To read more interesting biographies find of famous people, browse though our huge collection of short biographies for kids. Click for a discussion of certain omissions. Please send me e-mail if you believe there's a major flaw in my rankings (or an error in any of the biographies). Obviously the relative ranks of, say fibonacci and. Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different. I'm sure i've overlooked great mathematicians who obviously belong on this list. Please e-mail and tell me!

an object and its observer. Albert Einsteins Inventions, photons : he discovered that light is made up of small particles called photons and was awarded the nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Bose-einstein Condensate : Einstein discovered a state of matter with another scientist, satyendra bose. Today it is used in things like lasers. Atomic Bomb : Not directly connected with inventing it, but his Theory of Relativity is connected with the invention of the atomic bomb. Albert Einstein Facts, albert Einstein failed his first entrance exam for college. He was offered the presidency of Israel. Imagination is more important than knowledge.

The problem was, he wasnt roles very good at taking tests. However, he was always analytical. In 1905, einstein submitted a paper for his doctorate and also had four papers published in the best known physics journal at that time. He became a well known name in the academic world. Being Jewish, einstein knew he would have problems in nazi germany and so he migrated to the United States in 1933. Einsteins Theory of Relativity, albert Einstein was working as a patent clerk in Germany in 1905 when he developed his famous. Theory of Relativity (Emc2).

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Early Childhood a genius was born. Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879, to a jewish family. His father was an engineer and pdf a salesman. Einstein wasnt a very bright student. He even had problems with his speech. When he was five years old, einstein saw a magnetic compass and marvelled at the needle that kept moving with an invisible force. At age 12, he found a book on geometry which he read over and over again. Einstein wanted to pursue math and science.

Koblitz, graduate text 54, Springer 1996. Shallit, mit press, august 1996 ; Automorphic Forms and Representations,. Bump, cup 1996 ; Notes on Fermat's Last Theorem,.

Read about his life history in this concise biography. Albert Einstein was a great physicist and mathematician born on 14th March 1879 in the kingdom of W rttemberg, germany. His early education was from the catholic Elementary School. I would guess the progressive paradox of intelligence being nurture not nature is the strong linking of intelligence, education, and morality in their world view. Number Theory, books, 1996. P-adic Numbers, p-adic Analysis and Zeta-functions, (2nd edn.)N.

Approximations for the mathematical constant pi (π) in the history of mathematics reached an accuracy within.04 of the true value before the beginning of the common Era. In Chinese mathematics, this was improved to approximations correct to what corresponds to about seven decimal digits by the 5th century. Abdul Kalam was born in 1931. Abdul Kalam is the chief architect of India's missile programme. Abdul Kalam and Indian missile. Apj, abdul Kalam, the 11th Indian president, was a notable scientist engineer.

Signature modifier Lire le m dia extrait de Srinivasa. Ramanujan - the mathematician his Legacy (Srinivasa. Ramanujan : le math maticien et son h ritage un documentaire produit par le minist re des Affaires trang res de l'Inde ; on y voit les cahiers. Ramanujan, conserv s l' universit de madras. Greatest Mathematicians ever and their Contributions.

My search for Ramanujan: How i learned to count on m free shipping on qualified orders. Cristiano ronaldo biography for kids - he is one of the two most famous soccer players in his generation and also highest paid footballer in the world. Ramanujan (18871920 the mathematical genius, fare in his Intermediate examinations? Did he fail in mathematics? Or did he score a centum?

Srinivasa ramanujan, frs ʃ r i n i v ɑ s ə r ɑ m ɑ n ʊ dʒ ən listen (help info 22 December 1887 ) was an Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India. M: The man Who Knew Infinity : a life of the genius. Ramanujan ( robert Kanigel: books. Short biography of, albert Einstein, the nobel prize winning theoretical physicist. Read about his inventions,"s, facts and the Theory of Relativity.