Merritt, "Public Opinion in Colonial America: Content Analyzing the colonial Press." Public Opinion quarterly (1963) 273 pp: 356-371. In jstor winthrop. Jordan, "Familial Politics: Thomas paine and the killing of the king, 1776." journal of American History (1973 294-308. In jstor mott, American journalism: a history, pp 79-94 marcus Daniel, Scandal and civility: journalism and the birth of American Democracy (2009) catherine o'donnell Kaplan, men of Letters in the early republic: Cultivating Forms of Citizenship 2008) walter Berns, "Freedom of the Press and the. 109-159 in jstor richard lee kaplan, politics and the American press: the rise of objectivity, (2002). Summers, The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, (1994) peter. The a to z of the Progressive era. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) herbert Shapiro,., The muckrakers and American society (Heath, 1968 contains representative samples as well as academic commentary.
The, media in America: a history, 9 th edition (2014
By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached. 21 22 As political strategists turn their attention to the 2016 presidential contest, they identify facebook as an increasingly important advertising tool. Recent technical innovations have made possible more advanced divisions and subdivisions of the electorate. Most important, facebook can now deliver video ads to small, highly targeted subsets. Television, by contrast, shows the same commercials to all viewers, and so cannot be precisely tailored. 23 Online presence is shy vital to the success of a presidential candidate's campaign. 24 Social media presence lets candidates: have direct access to voters, advertise for free, and fundraise, among other benefits. 25 see also edit references edit alison Olson, "The zenger Case revisited: Satire, sedition and Political Debate in Eighteenth Century America." Early American Literature (2000) 353 pp: 223-245. Copeland, colonial American Newspapers: Character and Content (1997) william david Sloan, and Julie williams, The early American Press, (1994) ralph Frasca, "Benjamin Franklin's Printing Network and the Stamp Act pennsylvania history (2004) 713. 403-419 in jstor david Copeland, join, or die america's press during the French and Indian War." journalism History (1998) 243 pp: 112-23 online arthur. Schlesinger, harry "The colonial newspapers and the Stamp Act." New England quarterly (1935) 81 pp: 63-83.
At first the parties paid for long-winded half-hour or hour long speeches. By the 1960s, they discovered that the 30-second or one-minute commercial, repeated over and over again, was the most effective technique. It was expensive, however, so fund-raising became more and more important in winning campaigns. 19 New media era: since 1990 edit main articles: Decline of newspapers and Social media and political communication in the United States us newspaper Advertising revenue newspaper Association of America published data 20 Major technological innovations transformed the mass media. Radio, already overwhelmed by television, transformed itself into a niche service. It developed an important political dimension based on Talk radio. Television survived with a much reduced audience, but remained the number one advertising medium for election campaigns. Newspapers were in desperate trouble; most afternoon papers closed, and most morning papers barely survived, as the Internet undermined both their thesis advertising and their news reporting. The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, made use first of the personal computer and the Internet, and after 2010 of the smart phones to connect hundreds of millions of people, especially those under age.
However radio presented the new issue, for the government control the airwaves and licensed them. The federal Communications Commission ruled in the "Mayflower decision" in 1941 against the broadcasting of any editorial opinion, although political parties could still purchase airtime for their own speeches and programs. This policy was replaced in 1949 by the " fairness Doctrine " which allowed editorials, revelation if opposing views were given equal time. 18 Television era: 19501980s edit television arrived in the American home in the 1950s, and immediately became the main campaign medium. Party loyalties had weakened and there was a rapid growth in the number of independents. As a result candidates paid less attention to rallying diehard supporters and instead appealed to independent-minded voters. They adopted television advertising techniques as their primary campaign device.
New deal era edit main articles: Fifth Party system and New deal coalition Most of the major newspapers in the larger cities were owned by conservative publishers and they turned hostile to liberal President Franklin d roosevelt by 1934 or so, including major chains run. Roosevelt turned to radio, where he could reach more listeners more directly. During previous election campaigns, the parties sponsored nationwide broadcasts of major speeches. Roosevelt, however, gave intimate talks, person-to-person, as if he were in the same room sitting next to the fireplace. His rhetorical technique was extraordinarily effective. However, it proved very hard to duplicate. Young Ronald reagan, beginning a career in as a radio broadcaster and Hollywood star, was one of the few to match the right tone, nuance, and intimacy that roosevelt had introduced. 17 In peacetime, freedom of the press was not an issue for newspapers.
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15 One cause was the heavy coverage of corruption in politics, local government and big business, especially by muckrakers. They were journalists in the Progressive era (1890s-1920s) who wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. They relied on their own investigative journalism plan reporting; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. Muckraking magazinesnotably McClure's took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues like child labor. 16 ray stannard, george Creel, and Brand Whitlock specialized in exposing corruption at the state and local levels.
Others like lincoln Steffens went after corruption in big cities. Ida tarbell attacked John. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Upton Sinclair exposed the corrupt meatpacking industry and the horrific working conditions of men working in these factories. These journalists were nicknamed muckrakers by Theodore roosevelt because he complained they were being disruptive by raking up the muck.
The goal was not to convince independents, who are few in number, but to rally all the loyal party members to the polls by making them enthusiastic about the party's platform, and apprehensive about the enemy. Nearly all weekly and daily papers were party organs until the early 20th century. Thanks to hoe's invention of high-speed rotary presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated. In 1850, the census counted 1,630 party newspapers (with a circulation of about one per voter and only 83 "independent" papers. The party line was behind every line of news copy, not to mention the authoritative editorials, which exposed the 'stupidity' of the enemy and the 'triumphs' of the party in every issue. Editors were senior party leaders, and often were rewarded with lucrative postmasterships.
Top publishers, such as Horace Greeley, whitelaw reid, schuyler Colfax, warren Harding and James Cox were nominated on the national ticket. After 1900, william Randolph hearst, joseph Pulitzer and other big city politician-publishers discovered they could make far more profit through advertising, at so many dollars per thousand readers. By becoming non-partisan they expanded their base to include the opposition party and the fast-growing number of consumers who read the ads but were less and less interested in politics. There was less and less political news after 1900, apparently because citizens became more apathetic, and shared their partisan loyalties with the new professional sports teams that attracted larger and larger audiences. 13 14 Progressive era edit main articles: fourth Party system and Muckraker Magazines were not a new medium but they became much more popular around 1900, some with circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Thanks to the rapid expansion of national advertising, the cover price fell sharply to about 10 cents.
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The fourth Act made it a federal crime to publish "any false, scandalous, or malicious writing or writings against the guaranteed government of the United States, with intent to defame. Or to bring them. Into contempt or disrepute." Two dozen men were charged with felonies for violating the sedition Act, chiefly newspaper editors from the jeffersonian Republican Party. The act expired in 1801. 12 Second Party system: 1830s1850s edit main article: History of American newspapers The press in the party system: Both parties relied heavily on their national network of newspapers. Some editors were the key political players in their states, and most of them filled their papers with useful information on rallies and speeches and candidates, as well as the text of major speeches and campaign platforms. Third Party system: 1850s1890s edit main article: Third Party system Newspapers continued their role as the main internal communication system for the Army-style campaigns of the era.
With the formation of the first two political parties in the 1790s, both parties set up national networks of newspapers to provide a flow of partisan news and information for their supporters. The newspapers also printed pamphlets, flyers, and ballots that voters could simply drop in the ballot box. By 1796, both parties had a national network of newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently. Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded vicious barbs against their enemies. 10, the most heated rhetoric green came in debates over the French revolution, especially the. Jacobin Terror of 179394 when the guillotine was used daily. Nationalism was a high priority, and the editors fostered an intellectual nationalism typified by the federalist effort to stimulate a national literary culture through their clubs and publications in New York and Philadelphia, and through Federalist. Noah Webster 's efforts to simplify and Americanize the language. 11, at the height of political passion came in 1798 as the federalists in Congress passed the four Alien and Sedition Acts.
attack on the. Stamp Act of 1765. 6, they provided essential news of what was happening locally and in other colonies, and they provided the arguments used by the patriots, to voice their grievances such as "No taxation without representation!" 7, the newspapers also printed and sold pamphlets, such as the phenomenally. Common Sense (1776 which destroyed the king's prestige and jelled Patriot opinion overnight in favor of independence. 8, neutrality became impossible, and the few loyalist newspapers were hounded and ceased publication when the war began. However, the British controlled important cities for varying periods of time, including New York city, 1776 to 1783. They sponsored a loyalist press that vanished in 1783. 9, new nation, 1780s1820s edit, main article: First Party system, federalist poster about 1800. Washington (in heaven) tells partisans to keep the pillars of Federalism, republicanism and Democracy.
The illiterates often could hear newspapers read aloud at local taverns. By the mid-1760s, there were 24 weekly newspapers in the the 13 colonies (only new Jersey was lacking one and the satirical attack on government became common practice in American newspapers. 2 3, the French and Indian war (175763) was the featured topic of many newspaper stories, giving the colonials a broader view of American affairs. Benjamin Franklin, already famous as a printer in Philadelphia published one of the first editorial cartoons ". Join, or die " calling on the colonies to join together to defeat the French. By reprinting news originating in other papers, colonial printers created a private network for evaluating and disseminating news for the whole colonial world. Franklin took the lead, and eventually had two dozen newspapers in his network.
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Mass media and American politics covers the role of newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and social media from the colonial era to the present. Contents, colonial and revolutionary eras edit, the first newspapers appeared in major port cities such as Philadelphia, new York, boston, and Charleston in order to provide merchants with the latest trade news. They typically copied any news that word was received from other newspapers, or from the london press. The editors discovered they could criticize the local governor and gain a bigger audience; the governor discovered he could shut down the newspapers. The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in 1734, where the governor brought. John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after his paper published some satirical attacks. Zenger's lawyers argued that truth was a defense against libel and the jury acquitted Zenger, who became the iconic American hero for freedom of the press. The result was an emerging tension between the media and the government. 1, literacy was widespread in America, with over half of the white men able to read.