For example, the fourth daughter of Maria theresa, queen of Austria-hungary, marie antoinette, married the dauphin (crown prince) of France, who would become king louis xvi. 83 wealth and inheritance issues edit Throughout most of human history, marriage has been a social institution that produced children and organized inheritance of property from one generation to next. Various cultures, particularly some wealthy royals and aristocratic families, arranged marriages in part to conserve or streamline the inheritance of their wealth. 86 Tongyangxi, also known as Shim-pua marriage in taiwanese - literally child or little daughter-in-law - was a tradition of arranged marriage, in which a poor family would arrange and marry a pre-adolescent daughter into a richer family as a servant. 87 The little girl provided slave-like free labour, and also the daughter-in-law to the adoptive family's son. This sort of arranged marriage, in theory, enabled the girl to escape poverty and wealthy family to get free labour and a daughter-in-law.
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For example, in rural and tribal parts of pakistan and Afghanistan, disputes, unpaid debts in default and crimes such as murder are settled by a council of village elders, called jirga. 73 A typical punishment for a crime committed by males involves requiring the guilty family to marry their virgin girl between 5 and 12 year old to the other family. This custom requires no consent from the girl, or even her parents. Such arranged child marriages are called vani (custom), swara and sak in different regional languages of pakistan. Another custom in certain Islamic nations, 77 78 such as pakistan, is watta satta, where a brother-sister pair of one family are swapped as spouses for a brother-sister pair of another family. In other words, heavy the wife is also the sister-in-law for the males in two families. This custom inherently leads to arranged form of marriage. About 30 of all marriages in western rural regions of pakistan are by custom watta-satta marriages, and 75 of these muslim marriages are between cousins and other blood relatives. Some immigrant families prefer customary practice of arranged marriage., empress Maria theresa sends 14-year-old Maria antonia to France to marry louis-Auguste politics edit further information: royal intermarriage Arranged marriages across feudal lords, city states and kingdoms, as a means of establishing political alliances, trade and. When a king married his son to a neighboring states daughter, it indicated an alliance among equals, and signaled the former's state superiority.
62 Arranged marriage is also the tradition of many Islamic nations of West Asia and North Africa, but with the difference that between 17 to majority of all marriages in these countries are also consanguineous marriages. Endogamous non-consanguineous marriages limit the number of potential partners available, particularly when population size for the religion or caste or group is small; a limited marriagable pool makes locating potential partners challenging, and encourages arranged or quasi-arranged marriages. 67 68 The practice of endogamous consanguineous marriage dramatically limits the marriagable pool; it inherently encourages marriages arranged according to tradition and birth. Over.3 billion people, predominantly of Islamic faith, database practice endogamous consanguineous arranged marriages. 69 70 Consanguineous arranged marriages are presently also observed, though to a much lesser extent, in some ethnic groups of Africa, india, indonesia, polynesia and south America. 71 In pakistan and saudi Arabia, majority (65) of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages. More than 40 of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous in Iraq, Iran, jordan, syria, yemen, kuwait, uae, oman, sudan, libya and mauritania; and over 1 in 5 marriages in Turkey, egypt, Algeria, regions of Nigeria, india and Malaysia with high Muslim populations are endogamous. 69 72 Among these Islamic populations, arranged marriages include endogamous and non-consanguineous marriages, and therefore exceed the above observed rates of endogamous and consanguineous marriages. Custom edit The consequence of some customs is arranged marriage.
32 54 okonjo says that a physical disability in a bride, and even more so, a groom is one of the writing reasons for early arranged marriages in Nigeria. 55 Many cultures traditionally seek endogamous marriages. A prominent example of this practice is the hindu culture where the bride and groom belong to the same caste, but are non-consanguineous, that is the bride and groom are not blood relatives nor extended family members. Other examples of cultures following the endogamous arranged marriage tradition include Amish people in United States, 56 57 Orthodox Jews in Canada, the United States, Israel, and Western Europe, 58 59 Arab Christians 60 such as Coptic Christians in Egypt. 61 Marriage was a central feature of traditional Aboriginal societies. Freedom of marriage was restricted to ensure children were produced according to the correct family groups and affiliations daddy and avoid marriages with certain close relatives or marriages with any one outside the group. 62 Marriages were mostly arranged by infant betrothal ; it was even possible for a girl to be engaged before she was born. The promised relationship between the young man and woman, creates a series of lifelong responsibilities and obligations.
45 For example, in part due to economic prosperity, about 40 of modern Japanese women reach the age of 29 and have never been married. To assist late marriages, the traditional custom of arranged marriages called miai-kekkon is re-emerging. It involves the prospective bride and groom, family, friends and a matchmaker (nakōdo, the pair is selected by a process with the individuals and family involved (iegara, and typically the couple meet three times, in public or private, before deciding if they want to get. Limited choices edit migrant minority ethnic populations have limited choice of partners, particularly when they are stereotyped, segregated or avoided by the majority population. This encourages homogamy and arranged marriages within the ethnic group. Examples of this dynamic include sikh marriages between 19 in Canada, 49 homogamous quasi-arranged marriages between European descent south Africans, 50 arranged marriages among Hasidic Jews, 51 52 and arranged marriages among Japanese American immigrants before the 1960s, who would travel back to japan,. In other cases, a girl from Japan would arrive in the United States as a picture bride, pre-arranged to marry the japanese American man on arrival, whom she had never met. 53 Physical disabilities edit certain physical disabilities increase the likelihood of arranged, even forced marriages in some parts of the world.
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Parents arrange child marriages to ensure their childs financial security, reinforce social ties, believe it offers protection, and reduce the daughters economic burden on the family due to how costly it is to feed, clothe and (optionally) educate a girl. By marrying their daughter to a good family the parents improve their social status by establishing a social bond between each other. 37 According to warner, in nations with the highest rates of child marriages, the marriage of the girl is almost always arranged by her parents or guardians. 38 The nations with the highest rates of arranged child marriages are: Niger, Chad, mali, bangladesh, eid guinea, central African Republic, Afghanistan, yemen, and pakistan. Arranged child marriages are also observed essay in parts of the Americas. 39 40 poverty edit In impoverished communities, every adult mouth to feed becomes a continuing burden. Because in many of these cultures women have difficulty finding gainful employment (or are simply prohibited from doing so daughters become the greatest burden to the family.
Some scholars argue, therefore, that arranging a marriage of a daughter, becomes a necessary means to reduce this burden. 41 poverty, thus, is a driver of arranged marriage. This theory 42 43 is supported by the observed rapid drop in arranged marriages in fast growing economies of Asia. The financial benefit parents receive from their working single daughters has been cited 44 as a reason for their growing reluctance to see their daughters marry at too early an age. Late marriage edit late marriage, particularly past the age of 30, reduces the pool of available bachelorettes for autonomous marriages. Introductions and arranged marriages become a productive option.
The most common consanguineous marriages are first cousin marriages, followed by second cousin and uncle-niece marriages. Between 25 and 40 of all marriages in parts of saudi Arabia and pakistan are first cousin marriages; while overall consanguineous arranged marriages exceed 65 to 80 in various regions of North Africa and Central Asia. 22 23 The bride and groom in all of the above types of arranged marriages, usually do have the right to consent; if the bride or the groom or both do not have a right to consent, it is called a forced marriage. Non-consanguineous arranged marriage is one where the bride and groom do not share a grandparent or near ancestor. This type of arranged marriages is common in Hindu and Buddhist south Asia, southeast Asia, east Asia and Christian Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. 24 Consanguineous marriages are against the law in many parts of United States and Europe.
25 In the United Kingdom, uncle-niece marriages are considered incestuous and are illegal, but cousin marriages are not considered incestuous by the law and are legal, although there have been calls to ban first-cousin marriages due to health concerns. While consanguineous arranged marriages are common and culturally preferred in Islamic countries and migrants from Muslim countries to other parts of the world, they are culturally forbidden or considered undesirable in most Christian, hindu and Buddhist societies. 26 Consanguineous arranged marriages were common in Jewish communities before the 20th century, but have declined to less than 10 in modern times. 27 28 causes and prevalence edit over human history through modern times, the practice of arranged marriages have been encouraged by a combination of factors such as the practice of child marriage, 29 late marriage, tradition, 30 31 culture, religion, poverty and limited choice, disabilities. Child marriage edit main article: Child marriage Child marriage, particularly those below the age of 12, does not prepare or provide the individual much opportunity to make an informed, free choice about matrimony. These child marriages are implicitly arranged marriages. 36 In rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia and Latin America, poverty and lack of options such as being able to attend school leave little choice to children other than be in early arranged marriages. 29 Child marriages is primarily seen in areas of poverty.
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15 Similarly, broude and Greene, after studying 142 cultures worldwide, have reported that 130 cultures have elements of diary arranged marriage. 16 Extreme examples of forced arranged marriage have been observed in some societies, particularly in child marriages of girls below age. Illustrations include vani which is currently seen in some tribal / rural parts of pakistan, and Shim-pua marriage in taiwan before the 1970s (Tongyangxi in China). Types edit There are many kinds of arranged marriages, some of these are: Arranged exogamous marriage: is one where a third party finds and selects the bride diary and groom irrespective of their social, economic and cultural group. Arranged endogamous marriage: is one where a third party finds and selects the bride and groom from a particular social, economic and cultural group. Consanguineous marriage: is a type of arranged endogamous marriage. 21 It is one where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor. Examples of these include first cousin marriages, uncle-niece marriages, second cousin marriages, and.
In most other parts of the world, arranged marriages continue to varying degrees and increasingly in quasi-arranged form, along with autonomous marriages. 2 Computer dating sites may be considered a modern form of arranged marriage where systems the selection process is delegated to algorithms instead of parents. More than one-third of all American couples who got married between 20 met online so in some sense, arranged marriages are resurging. 13 Comparison edit The Ambitious Mother and the Obliging Clergyman - a cartoon by Charles Dana gibson caricaturing arranged marriages in early 20th century United States. A parent insists their daughter marry a man on grounds of wealth or aristocratic title, without considering the girl's wishes. The clergyman is caricatured officiating the marriage with a blindfold. Marriages have been categorized into four groups in scholarly studies: 2 14 parents or guardians select, the individuals are neither consulted nor have any say before the marriage (forced arranged marriage) parents or guardians select, then the individuals are consulted, who consider and consent, and.
the wedding day. 5 6 7, arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before the early 20th century, most of which were endogamous. 8, until the first half of the 20th century, arranged marriages were common in migrant families in the United States. 9, they were sometimes called picture-bride marriages among Japanese American immigrants because the bride and groom knew each other only through the exchange of photographs before the day of their marriage. These marriages among immigrants were typically arranged by parents, or relatives from the country of their origin. As immigrants settled in and melded into a new culture, arranged marriages shifted first to quasi-arranged marriages where parents or friends made introductions and the couple met before the marriage; over time, the marriages among the descendants of these immigrants shifted to autonomous marriages driven. 9 10 Similar historical dynamics are claimed in other parts of the world. 11 12 Arranged marriages have declined in prosperous countries with social mobility and increasing individualism; nevertheless, arranged marriages are still seen in countries of Europe and North America, among royal families, aristocrats and minority religious groups such as in placement marriage among Fundamentalist Mormon groups.
1, many cultures, however, practice marriage arrangements that are mostly or entirely consensual. This is more prevalent in poorer countries though it is common in some wealthier countries as well. Contents, history edit, arranged marriages were presentation very common throughout the world until the 18th century. 2, typically, marriages were arranged by parents, grandparents or other relatives. Some historical exceptions are known, such as courtship and betrothal rituals during the. Renaissance period of Italy 3 and, gandharva marriages in the vedic period of India. 4, in China, arranged marriages (baoban hunyin, ) - sometimes called blind marriages (manghun, ) - were the norm before the mid-20th century.
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Arranged marriage is a type of marital revelation union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents. Depending on culture, a professional matchmaker may be used. Arranged marriages have historically been prominent in many cultures. The practice remains common in many regions, notably. South Asia, though in many other parts of the world the practice has declined substantially during the 19th and 20th centuries. Arranged marriages can take a variety of forms ranging from forced marriages (where either the bride or the groom, or both, have no choice in the matter) to consensual marriages (where the bride and groom have allowed outside parties to bring them together). Forced marriages, while still practiced in some cultures, are generally considered beneath international norms and have been condemned by the. The specific sub-category of forced child marriage is especially condemned.