The "The Dream of the rood's" description of Christ's burial also reflects the unique image of Christ in medieval times. In biblical accounts of the crucifixion, jesus' burial is quiet and simple: taking Jesus' body, the two of them Joseph and Nicodemus wrapped it, with the spices, in strips of linen. At the place where jesus was crucified, there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had ever been laid. Because it was the jewish day of Preparationandsince the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.(29). In contrast to this humble, convenient, and time-efficient burial, "The Dream of the rood" portrays Christ's burial as a monumental event befitting a warrior. Instead of depositing Christ's body in the closest available tomb, "the men then made a sepulchre for Him. They carved it of bright stone, and set therein the lord of victories.
Free beowulf Hero Essays and Papers
When he was forced to carry mentorship his own cross, the burden was too great for him so "the soldiers seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus.". It is already in position when it sees Christ advancing to it: Men carried me the cross, upon their shoulders and set me on a hill, a host of enemies there fastened. And then l saw the lord of all mankind hasten with eager zeal that he might mount. Upon.(26 in this way, the poet avoids mentioning Christ's inability to shoulder the weight of the cross. Swanton writes that this departure from biblical accounts of the crucifixion was also found in medieval art: "No flogged, suffering stumbling Christ drags the cross to calvary. As in contemporary iconography, he is a young and confident champion striding from afar." (27). By presenting Christ as a warrior 27 impregnable to fatigue and weakness, the poet shows that Christ was an ultimate hero. Interestingly, the poet's tendency to omit indications of Christ's weakness is not shared by medieval poets writing about the great secular heroes of the day. The author of beowulf makes little attempt to hide beowulf's frailty when he falters under Grendel's mother's wrath: "The strongest of fighting-men stumbled in his weariness, the firmest of all foot-warriors fell to the earth. 28) Perhaps "The Dream of the rood" poet's unwillingness to admit that Jesus was weary shows his or her desire to show that Christ embodied a level of supreme strength and heroism above beowulf and the other great warriors of the time period.
Michael Swanton, Professor of English Medieval Studies summary at the University of Exeter, suggests that "the extent of Christ's physical condition is carefully masked in favor of his victorious rule from the cross. 22) The poet de-emphasized the abuse jesus experienced in order to focus complete attention on Christ's triumphant victory over sin. In keeping with the warrior image of Christ, "The Dream of the rood" also downplays many aspects of the crucifixion story which reveal Christ's physical pain and weakness. Rather than describing the suffering that Jesus experienced, the poet chose to transfer Christ's anguish to the cross. The cross, rather than Christ, feels the pain of the crucifixion: "I the cross, was "pierced with dark nails; / The scars can still be clearly seen on me, / The open wounds of malice. 23) In this way the poet is able to "evade the awkward issue of Christ's susceptibility to pain. 24) The poem also says nothing about the drink jesus requested while he was on the cross-an incident that is included in all four gospels-perhaps because it would imply that he was subject to human frailty and weakness. Similarly, the bible shows that Christ was exhausted at the time of his crucifixion.
Just as "The Dream of the rood" poet omits details in the biblical accounts of the crucifixion that imply jesus was a passive participant in his death, he or she de-emphasizes the disgrace, humiliation, and barbing indignity of Christ's position. Nowhere in "The Dream of the rood" is it mentioned that Jesus was mocked, flogged, and spit upon in the manner described in the gospel of Matthew: Then the governor's soldiers took jesus into the palace and gathered the whole company of soldiers around him. They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on his head. They put a staff in his right hand and knelt in front of him and mocked him. "Hail, king of the jews!" they said. They spit on him, and took the staff and struck him on the head again and again. (20) 26Though "The Dream of the rood" does mention that the cross and Christ "were reviled together 21) it does not detail the pain and humiliation Christ suffered.
The fact that "The Dream of the rood" poet endows Christ with the jubilance and heroic bravado that typify great warriors of the medieval period shows that the image of Christ had changed to fit the values of the current culture. According to Edward Irving, Professor Emeritus of English at the University of Pennsylvania, germanic culture was a "society that was dedicated to aggressive behavior and the strutting niceties of personal honor. 16) by emphasizing Christ's boldness and bravery over his more submissive characteristics, the poet presents an image of Christ that falls in line with the heroic ideals of the middle Ages. The poet's word choice in the description of the final moment of Jesus' life also reflects the image of Christ as a warrior. Where the gospel-writer John records that Jesus "bowed his head and gave up his spirit 17) the poet of "The Dream of the rood" says that Christ "sent forth his spirit. 18) The subtle distinction between these two statements is significant because the poet of "The Dream of the rood" does not imply that Jesus quietly relinquished his spirit, but rather that he forcefully and willfully ended his life, in control of the situation until the. Dying courageously was crucial to the medieval image of Christ because as Irving writes, "for the aristocratic class of warriors, to die bravely and publicly was all.
Beowulf: a new Prose Translation
Instead of simply using the essay word "Christ the poet calls Jesus "the young hero" and "the warrior." In other translations, Christ is called the "heroic, fair, young knight 4) and "mankind's brave king. 5) These images, along with the words resolute and strong in heart, create a vivid image of Christ which echoes the description of beowulf, an admired mythical hero of the early middle Ages. In beowulf, beowulf is praised as a "king "the hero and a "valiant warrior." 24he is said to posses "strength and vigor "daring and "determined resolve. The poet also presents a warrior-like image of Christ by portraying Jesus exuberantly preparing for combat rather than being lead passively to the cross. Where the bible states that "they the roman soldiers stripped him 7) "The Dream of the rood poet writes that "the young warrior, god our savior, valiant-ly stripped before the battle. 8) Later, the poet suggests that Christ actually initiates the battle to redeem mankind: he climbed onto the lofty gallows-tree, bold in the sight of many watching men, When he intended to redeem mankind.the warrior embraced the cross.(9 this tone of action is also present.
10) According to peggy samuels, a medievalist, the original text repeatedly uses the word fus-which has "the following range of connotations: hastening, eager, ready, willing, dying 11)-to emphasize christ's warrior-like approach to the cross. These words evoke an image of Christ which differs strongly from the "Passover lamb that has been sacrificed 12) described in the bible. By presenting Christ as a confident hero, the "Dream of the rood" poet emphasizes the voluntariness of Christ's undertaking the crucifixion. The attitude vessel the poet gives Christ as he approaches the cross is similar to the daring spirit often expressed by beowulf, a fictional Anglo-saxon hero. When beowuif prepares to go to battle against Grendel's mother, he is unanxious for his life 13) and says "I am eager to begin! 14) Just as Christ in "The Dream of the rood" boldly rushes to mount the cross, beowulf plunges into battle with great enthusiasm : 25 "With Hrunting shall i achieve this deed-or death shall take me!". After these words the weather-geat prince dived into the mere- -he did not care to wait for an answer-and the waves closed over the daring man.(15).
Though he calls them Essays on Medieval Culture, the theme is now, as it ever was, the relation of literature to history, not so much of literary texts to individual events in history, which is the character of the old historicism, as the nature. Journal of English and Germanic Philology. The essays reflect Pattersons diverse scholarly concerns and eclectic literary critical interests. Discussions range across historical debates between Exegeticism and New Criticism, pedagogy, and more traditional modes of literary and historical criticism, while subjects under consideration extend from Virgil and boethius, to beowulf, the works of Chaucer and his near-contemporaries, and beyond to milton and. The four feathers (1902). —, parergon, in bringing together a selection of previously published work, this recent collection of essays by lee patterson offers both a snapshot of a field-shaping career and a reminder of the continued power of the historicist practices that Patterson so eloquently and forcefully championed.
The Dream of the rood and the Image of Christ in the early middle Ages. Jeannette c brock 23Though the author of the book of Hebrews states that "Jesus is the same yesterday and today and forever" (1) it is clear that humankind's image of Christ has changed throughout the ages. Jaroslav pelikan, author of Jesus Through the centuries, writes: "It has been characteristic of each age of history to depict Jesus in accordance with its own character." (2) In "The Dream of the rood an Anglo-saxon poem written in the early middle Ages, Christ's death. In order to emphasize the momentous triumph of the crucifixion, the poet of "The Dream of the rood" depicts Christ as an aggressive warrior who boldly confronts and defeats sin. This depiction is consistent with the honor and courage so highly valued in the early medieval culture. The words used to describe Christ's approach to the crucifixion in "The Dream of the rood" reveal the poet's conscious choice to portray jesus as a purposeful courageous warrior: Then the young hero (who was God Almighty). Got ready, resolute and strong in heart.the warrior embraced the cross.
Seamus heaney reads His Exquisite Translation of beowulf
It will provide a timely, welcome, and stimulating challenge to the field. David Aers, duke university acts of london Recognition offers us lee patterson at his best, as weve come to know his scholarship over the decades. Fearless, wide-ranging, and startling in the acuity of its insights, the volume reminds us why there is always something to learn from this superb thinker, whatever our critical approach or field. From the famous opening chapter on historical criticism to the luminous meditation. Francis that creates the books sense of an ending, patterson brilliantly shows us how the past continues part of us, always, and why it is not a foreign country but our home." —. Geraldine heng, University of Texas at Austin. Isbn: pages, this is a collection of essays that lee patterson has written over the past thirty years, and it is very welcome.
The next three chapters take up three less-read late medieval writers: Sir John Clanvowe, thomas Hoccleve, and John Lydgate. Each is used to illuminate a social phenomenon: the nature of court culture, the experience of the city, and Henry Vs act of self-making. The following chapter explicitly links past and present by arguing that the bearing of the English aristocrat comes from a tradition beginning with. Beowulf and later reinvoked in response to nineteenth-century imperialism. The next three chapters are the most literary, dealing with Chaucer and with literary conventions in relation to a number of texts. The final chapter is on the man Patterson considers one of the most important of our essay medieval ancestors, Francis of Assisi. This is a collection of essays published over the last twenty-seven years by an outstanding medievalist, one who has been exceptionally influential on medieval studies and whose work continues to be of the greatest importance. Pattersons collection is informed by a fascination with the ways in which the past inhabits the present. This collection of essays provide us with an eloquent, forceful demonstration of the hermeneutic potentials of liberal humanism in a committedly historicist mode.
and ecology? Let's consider the idea of an environmental studies program -. Benedict would want it that way). Essays on Medieval Culture, lee patterson, this volume brings together lee pattersons essays published in various venues over the past twenty-seven years. As he observes in his preface, the one persistent recognition that emerged from writing these otherwise quite disparate essays is that whatever the text. And whoever the people., the values at issue remain central to contemporary life. Two dialectics are at work in this book: that between the past and the present and that between the individual and the social, and both have moral significance. The first two chapters are methodological; the first is on the historical understanding of medieval literature and the second on how to manage the inseparability of fact and value in the classroom.
Argued that the roots of our ecological crisis are ultimately derived from the ".Christian axiom that nature has no reason for existence save to serve man." he believes this attitude originates in the Christian creation story in which God created the earth for the benefit. Thus it ".is God's will that man could exploit nature for his proper ends.". Ex-President reagan is alleged to have said, "when you've seen one redwood tree, you've seen then all." According to White, this comment is an example of the Christian notion that ".a tree can be no more than a physical fact. . The whole concept of the sacred grove is alien to Christianity and to the ethos of the west. . For nearly two millennia christian missionaries have been chopping down sacred groves, which are idolatrous because they assume spirit in nature.". White concludes that since ".the roots of our trouble are so largely religious, the remedy must also be essentially re science and more technology are not going to get us out of the present ecological crisis until night we find a new religion, or rethink our. Charles Birch, the 1990 winner of the templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, highlights the importance of religion in solving our ecological problems. . he says that ".expanding the concepts of compassion, rights and justice to all living creatures, not only in theory but in the practice of a biocentric ethic, would be a great achievement for our time. . Yet the advocacy of Western religious thought is most weak here, where the ache of the world is most strong." Writer and philosopher Richard means agrees that ".we need to appreciate more fully the religious and moral dimensions of the relation between nature and the.
Explanatory notes on beowulf
Environmental Awareness, a religious concern; published. The record ; 7 november, 1991, in the October 17 write issue. Ernie diedrich and sju senior mike miner argued eloquently for the introduction of environmental studies (ES) into our curriculum. . I concur and i am especially glad to see this issue being addressed publicly on our campuses. . I believe that there are many excellent reasons why we should adopt such a program. . Perhaps the most significant reason for our institutions is because many of the solutions to our most critical ecological problems will have a religious base. In a classic essay published. Science (155: ; 1967 lynn White,.