Bennet shows no warmth toward Jane and Elizabeth when they return from Netherfield (105;. Verse plays give the act, scene, and line numbers; separate them with periods. Macbeth continues the vision theme when he addresses the Ghost with "Thou hast no speculation in those eyes / Which thou dost glare with" (3.3.96-97). Poems give the part and the line numbers (separated by periods). If a poem has only line numbers, use the word line(s) in the first reference. Whitman sets up not only opposing adjectives but also opposing nouns in "Song of Myself" when he says, "I am of old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise, /. .
Norton book of Nature Writing: Robert Finch, john Elder
One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson. Organization or government as author if the author is an organization, cite the organization either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. It's acceptable to shorten long names. Government can be direct when it wants. For example, for it sternly warns, "If you are overpaid, we will recover any payments not due you" (Social Security Administration 12). Author unknown if you don't know the author of a work, as you won't with many reference books and with most newspaper editorials, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title in the parentheses. The explanatory notes at the front of the literature encyclopedia point out that writers known by pseudonyms are listed alphabetically under those pseudonyms ( Merriam-Webster's vii). A powerful editorial in last week's paper asserts that healthy liver donor mike hurewitz died because of "frightening" faulty wallpaper postoperative care every patient's Nightmare. Literary works when referring to literary works that are available in many different editions, cite the page numbers from the edition you are using, followed by information that will let readers of any edition locate the text you are citing. Novels give the page and chapter number. In Pride and Prejudice, mrs.
In Eastward to tartary, kaplan captures ancient and contemporary Antioch for us: At the height of its glory in the roman-byzantine age, when it had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and sewage pipes, half a million people lived in Antioch. Today the population is only 125,000. With sour relations between Turkey and Syria, and unstable politics throughout the middle east, Antioch is now a backwater—seedy and tumbledown, with relatively few tourists. I found it altogether charming. (123) Back to top. Two or more authors for a work by two or three authors, name all the authors, either in a signal phrase or in the parentheses. Carlson and Ventura's stated goal is to introduce julio cortázar, marjorie agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of English-speaking adolescents (v). For a work with four or more authors, you have the option of mentioning all their names or just the name of the first author followed by., which means "and others." business One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic.
Eastward to tartary argues that understanding power in the near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan essay 330). Authors with business the same last name if your works-cited list includes works by authors with the same last name, you need to give the author's first name in any signal phrase or the author's first initial in the parenthetical reference. Edmund Wilson uses the broader term imaginative, whereas Anne wilson chooses the narrower adjective magical. Imaginative applies not only to modern literature (E. Wilson) but also to writing of all periods, whereas magical is often used in writing about Arthurian romances (A. Aftelock"tion when"ng more than three lines of poetry, more than four lines of prose, or dialogue from a drama, set off the"tion from the rest of your text, indenting it one inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin. Do not use"tion marks. Place any parenthetical documentation after the final punctuation.
You can mention the author in a signal phrase and give the title and page reference in parentheses. Give the full title if it's brief; otherwise, give a short version. Kaplan insists that understanding power in the near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" ( Eastward 330). You can mention both author and title in a signal phrase and give only the page reference in parentheses. In Eastward to tartary, kaplan insists that understanding power in the near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (330). You can indicate author, title, and page reference only in parentheses, with a comma between author and title. Understanding power in the near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan, eastward 330). Or you can mention the title in a signal phrase and give the author and page reference in parentheses.
The norton book of Nature Writing - google books
(Your instructor may prefer italics to underlining; find out if you're not sure.). Author named iignal phrase if you mention the writer author in a signal phrase, put only the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not write page. McCullough describes John Adams as having "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (18). McCullough describes John Adams's hands as those of someone used to manual labor (18). Back to top. Author named in parentheses if you do not mention the author in a signal phrase, put his or her last name in parentheses along with the page number(s).
Do not use punctuation between the name and the page number(s). Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (McCullough 18). One biographer describes John Adams as someone who was not a stranger to manual labor (McCullough 18). Whether you use a signal phrase and parentheses or parentheses only, try to put the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence or as close as possible to the material you've cited without awkwardly interrupting the sentence. Notice that in the first example above, the parenthetical reference comes after the closing"tion marks but before the period at the end of the sentence. Two or more works by the same author if you cite multiple works by one author, you have four choices.
Apa style in-text documentation as faigley (1992) suggested, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (p. As one observer has noted, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (Faigley, 1992,. Reference-list documentation faigley,. Fragments of rationality: Postmodernity and the subject of composition. Pittsburgh, pa: University of Pittsburgh Press. Back to top mla style modern Language Association style calls for (1) brief in-text documentation and (2) complete documentation in a list of works cited at the end of your text.
The models in this chapter draw on the mla handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition, by joseph Gibaldi (2003). Additional information is available. A directory to mla style mla in-Text Documentation Author named in a signal phrase author named in parentheses Two or more works by the same author Authors with the same last name After a block"tion Two or more authors Organization or government as author. In your text, you have three options for citing a source:"ng, paraphrasing, and summarizing. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether or not to name the author in a signal phrase—"as Toni morrison writes"—or in parentheses— morrison 24)." The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text citations of a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using mla style work authors and page numbers —and sometimes titles —into their texts. The examples also illustrate the mla style of using"tion marks around titles of short works and underlining titles of long works.
Norton book of Nature Writing, College Edition / Edition 1 by robert
Comparing the mla and apa styles of listing works cited or references reveals some differences: mla includes an author's first name while apa gives only the initial; mla puts the date at the end while apa places it right after the author's name; mla underlines. Overall, however, the styles provide similar information: each gives author, title, and publication data. Mla style, in-text documentation as Lester faigley puts it, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (12). As list one observer suggests, "The world has become a bazaar from which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (Faigley 12). Works-cited documentation faigley, lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the subject margaret of Composition. Pittsburgh: u of Pittsburgh p, 1992.
Many other publishers and organizations have their own style, among them the University of Chicago Press and the council of Science Editors. We focus on mla and apa here because those are styles that college students are often required to use. On the following page are examples of how the two parts—the brief parenthetical documentation in your text and the more-detailed information at the end—correspond. The top of the page shows the two parts according to the mla system; the bottom, the two parts according to the apa system. As the examples show, when you cite a work in your text, you can name the author either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. If you name the author in a signal phrase, give the page number(s) in parentheses; when the author's name is not given forex in a signal phrase, include it in parentheses. The examples here and throughout this book are color-coded to help you see the crucial parts of each citation: tan for author and editor, yellow for title, and green for publication information: city of publication, name of publisher, year of publication, page number(s and.
we know and where we got our information is part of establishing our credibility and persuading others to take what we say seriously. The goal of a research project is to study a topic, combining what we learn from sources with our own thinking and then composing a written text. When we write up the results of a research project, we cite the sources we use, usually by"ng, paraphrasing, or summarizing, and we acknowledge those sources, telling readers where the ideas came from. The information we give about sources is called documentation, and we provide it not only to establish our credibility as researchers and writers but also so that our readers, if they wish to, can find the sources themselves. Understanding documentation styles, the, norton, field guide covers the documentation styles of the modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). Mla style is used chiefly in the humanities; apa is used mainly in the social sciences. Both are two-part systems, consisting of (1) brief in-text parenthetical documentation for"tions, paraphrases, or summaries and (2) more-detailed documentation in a list of sources at the end of the text. Mla and apa require that the end-of-text documentation provide the following basic information about each source you cite: author, editor, or organization providing the information title of work place of publication name of organization or company that published it date when it was published for. Mla and apa are by no means the only documentation styles.
Rent, norton, book of, nature, writing 2nd edition ( ) today, or search our site for other textbooks by robert Finch. Every textbook comes with a 21-day "Any reason" guarantee. We do research all the time, for many different reasons. We search the web for information about a new computer, ask friends about the best place to get coffee, try on several pairs of jeans before deciding which ones to buy. You have no doubt done your share of library research before now, and you probably father's visited a number of schools' web sites before deciding which college you wanted to attend. Research, in other words, is something you do every day. The following chapters offer advice on the kind of research you'll need to do for your academic work and, in particular, for research papers and other written documents.
Norton book of Nature Writing, college Edition / With field guide
Robert Finch, author, john Elder, Editor. Norton company 35 (921p) isbn. Covering more than 200 years of nature writing, this volume is more than a sampling of the genre, it is a feast. Finch ( The Primal Place ) and Elder ( Imagining the earth: poetry and the vision. Nature ) have assembled a dazzling array of British and American writers whose works range from pastoral to impressionistic, from personal observation to the imaginative and philosophical. Many of the authors are readily paper identified with nature writing : Gilbert White, william Bartram, henry Thoreau, john muir, Aldo leopold. The editors have some surprises for us, introducing essays on nature by Thomas Merton, henry james, virginia woolf, washington Irving,. About one-third of the selections represent modern writers, among them Annie dillard, barry lopez, wendell Berry. For some readers this anthology will be a voyage of discovery; for others, an opportunity to renew acquaintance with old friends.